Why are Baluchis striving for independence from Pakistan?
Pakistan as a nuclear state
Table of Contents
1. Pakistan - An Introduction
1.1. Data, numbers and facts
2. Nuclear weapons in general
3. Pakistan and the "atomic bomb"
3.1. From the idea to the ignition: The development
3.2. "The Pakistani Bomb"
3.3. How Safe is the Pakistani Bomb?
3.4. The Pakistani Nuclear Doctrine
4. The (nuclear) relations with neighboring countries
4.1. Republic of India
4.1.1. The "Draft Report" and its meaning
4.2. People's Republic of China
4.3. Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
4.4. Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
4.5. Islamic Republic of Iran
5. The (atomic) influence of the "West"
5.1 United States of America
5.2. Federal Republic of Germany
5.3. Selected state alliances and associations of states
In an interview in March 2000, the former American President Bill Clinton described the security situation in South Asia as "the most dangerous place in the world right now"1. With this statement, Bill Clinton succeeded in giving a definition of an entire region that would still apply more than ten years later. The state of Pakistan, which has been known as the Islamic Republic since 1957, has been in constant conflict with its neighboring country India since its independence in 1947. So far, four wars have been fought openly with one another. The Kashmir region is the main point of contention in this ongoing conflict. Three of the four wars were fought over the region claimed by both sides.
The direct confrontation with India also represents a simultaneous challenge for Pakistan. As early as 1965, Zulfikar Ali Bhutto stated that India was clearly inferior in the conventional armament sector. To the suffering of the population, this disadvantage must be made up with the help of nuclear technology.2 The year 1998 was to be a turning point in the conflict between the two states. More than 30 years after Bhutto's announcement, India and then Pakistan successfully conducted nuclear weapons tests. Pakistan became the first and only Islamic state to have nuclear weapons on May 28, 1998.
The main focus of this work should ultimately be on the question of the role Pakistan plays as a nuclear state. What does the possession of nuclear weapons mean for the strategy against the Indian neighbor? What influence did China have on the development of the "Islamic bomb"3 ? What is the role of Afghanistan and, related to it, the Talibanization of the country? Are there any links to the Iranian nuclear program? In the further course it will then have to be clarified which role the western countries played in the development of the Pakistani nuclear program. What role did the USA play? Did the Federal Republic of Germany help with the development in Pakistan?
However, to start with, I will give an overview of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan in general. An overview of the history, dates and facts must be created as a basis. Then I will make a presentation about the atomic bomb based on scientific facts. What exactly is the atomic bomb, which states have nuclear weapons and what are the main components of the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT)?
Following the introductory facts, Pakistan will be presented as a nuclear state. From the first thoughts and steps to the successful tests in May 1998, all key milestones should be addressed. The main focus should be on the influence of the most important actors in the Pakistani state, the military and politics. In addition, it should be clarified what nuclear potential the Islamic Republic has. It should also be shown which military means of delivery are available. The Pakistani nuclear doctrine is ultimately intended to describe the behavior of the state in dealing with its nuclear weapons. The comparison of the Pakistani nuclear doctrine with the Indian “Draft Report” shows very clearly what high relevance and at the same time high explosiveness the doctrines are not only for South Asia.
Subsequently, the effects on and by the Pakistani neighboring states are to be examined. In particular, the relations with India, China and Afghanistan should make it clear in different ways that Bill Clinton's statement at the beginning of this work has lost none of its significance. If China supports its Islamic neighbors with money and technology, there is, on the other hand, the danger that Afghanistan or Afghan Islamists will acquire this technology. Saudi Arabia and Iran represent an equally important constellation, as there is increasing news about both states that they are also striving for nuclear weapons. This is to be examined in the further course of this elaboration.
In order to be able to carry out a comprehensive analysis of Pakistan as a nuclear state, we should, as already indicated, also focus on selected states in the West. The influence of the USA should be examined in more detail.
Relations between Pakistan and the United States of America have been characterized by constant fluctuations for decades. As a “front-line state”, Pakistan is now one of the United States' closest and most important allies for the second time. What benefits can and could Pakistan draw from this relationship? Germany, the EU and the UN have worked together with Pakistan on various levels of cooperation, in particular in the training of scientists, the transfer of technology, etc. These collaborations also need to be analyzed in more detail.
Finally, an outlook should be given: Where does Pakistan stand today? The dangers of Islamization, Talibanization, the Kashmir question; what do these problems mean for the future of the Islamic Republic and what do these dangers mean for the handling of the Pakistani bomb?
1. Pakistan - An Introduction
"It was the leadership of the Father of Nation, Quaid-e Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah, and the concept of Allama Dr. Mohammad Iqbal, complimented with the determination of the Muslims of South Asia that led on the establishment of Pakistan on August 14, 1947 ”4.
From the quote from the Pakistani ambassador, Shahid Kemal, three motives can be identified that led to the founding of East and West Pakistan as well as the formation of India more than 60 years ago.
Mohammad Iqbal is still referred to today as the "spiritual father of Pakistan". Trained in the Wilhelmine Empire, he not only studied philosophy there, but also internalized the idea of a nation-state based on common ancestry. At a congress of the All India Muslim League5 Muhammad Iqbal propagated the idea of an independent state for all Muslims in northwest India for the first time6.
“The father of the nation”, Mohammad Ali Jinnah, also formulated the two-nation theory on the basis of Iqbal's philosophy. Samuel Huntington would attribute it to the cultural-religious differences, and Jinnah did the same: “The Hindus and Muslims belong to two different religious philosophies, social customs, literatures. They neither intermarry nor interdine, and indeed they belong to two different civilizations which are based on conflicting ideas and conceptions [...] To yoke together such nations under a single state, one as a numerical minority, and the other as a majority, must lead to growing discontent and final destruction of any fabric that may be so built up for the government of such a state. "7 On March 23, 1940, the "Pakistan Resolution" was passed at the annual conference of the All India Muslim League in Lahore.8 The basis is the two-nation theory and the associated division of British India and the establishment of an independent Muslim state9 (Pakistan) and the simultaneous retention of a state for all Hindus (India).
Pakistan was granted independence on August 14, 1947. Even in the first days of independence, the young nation was faced with a handful of fundamental problems. The then British Viceroy was commissioned to draw the boundaries. When drawing the boundary, Lord Mountbatten referred to demographic statistics from 1941. Within 35 days, British India was virtually redrawn and divided between India and Pakistan. Contrary to expectations, the borders led through a number of settlement areas. East and West Pakistan were 1,500 kilometers apart (as the crow flies). It is estimated that in the first days of independence there were between 250,000-1 million dead and over 20 million refugees on the Indian-Pakistani border10.
The division between East and West Pakistan seemed to be an insurmountable problem from independence onwards. Ali Jinnah tried to unite the people, among other things, by introducing "Urdu" as the national language. However, the Bengali in East Pakistan refused to accept them11. Their representation in parliament was also prevented. In 1971 East Pakistan finally gained independence and Bangladesh was founded.12 The establishment of Bangladesh, however, was not without bloodshed. The East Pakistani Awami League13 proclaimed the independence of East Pakistan in 1971 as a result of the party's refusal to enter parliament. West Pakistani military was deployed to stop the movement. India intervened on the side of East Pakistan and West Pakistan had to withdraw within a very short time. In December 1971, Mujibur Rahman proclaimed the Republic of Bangladesh14. With the intervention of India it was already the third war between India and Pakistan since their independence. Here, the Kashmir region was and is the focus of interests. The first war broke out in and around this region as early as 1947/4815. After the first war, Kashmir was divided between the two opponents16. Since then, the state of Jammu and the Kashmir Valley have belonged to India, the northern regions and Azad to Pakistan. Both states, however, claim full control over the region; India because the Maharaja of Kashmir decided to join India in 1947, Pakistan because of the Muslim population of Kashmir. The UN line of control was never recognized. A referendum on Kashmiri membership (1948), called for by the UN Security Council, has also not been held to this day17.
The fact that India was becoming an opponent of Pakistan was already evident when it was founded. The Kashmir wars, also the first war, should make it clear to Pakistan that on a conventional level it was inferior to the Indian enemy. It was therefore decided relatively quickly to establish the connection on a technological-strategic level. In the late 1940s and early 1950s, both countries, first India and then Pakistan, began to set up “nuclear energy agencies”. With outside help, both countries managed to put their first research reactors and then nuclear power plants into operation at relatively short notice18.
1.1. Data, numbers and facts
In terms of population, the Islamic Republic of Pakistan ranks 6th among the most populous nation states on earth. The nation has around 160 million inhabitants. Pakistan has almost 80 million inhabitants more than the Federal Republic of Germany but also more than 1 billion inhabitants less than the Indian republic km²19.
The gross national product (GNP) per capita is $ 690 / year. If you take the figures for Germany and India again for comparison, it becomes clear where Pakistan can be classified economically. The German GNP was $ 30,690 in 2008 and the Indian GNP was $ 793.20.
Pakistan, the “pure state”, founded for all Muslims in South Asia, has been calling itself since the 1956 constitution21 officially as the Islamic Republic. Not only was Islam enshrined in the constitution as the state religion, in the First Constitution of 1956 God was also anchored in the preamble as sovereign22. Based on the fact that Pakistan was founded as a state for all Muslims, the population composition can also be explained. 96% of the population are Muslim. These are divided into 80% Sunnis and 20% Shiites23. The remaining 4% represent minorities such as Christians, Hindus and Buddhists24. Pakistan has an enormous variety of Islamic currents and undercurrents. In addition, there is a not to be underestimated number of amalgamations with Hindu and Buddhist traditions and influences25. The most strongly represented currents within the Shiite religious movement are the "Ishmaelites"26. The “Hanafanite School of Law” and the “Deobandis School” represent the strongest currents within the Sunni movement. At this point it should be noted that the Deobandis School is the religious arm of the JUI. The Taliban movement emerged from the Deobandis School in cooperation with the JUI. The Deobandis students and scholars played a key role in the formation of the Taliban in and through the Haqqania religious school (madrassa). The "Sufism", the so-called popular Islam, represents another, not insignificant movement within Pakistan, but also in India. The "Sufis" shape a number of teachings and customs, which are also taught in different religious schools, for example in Bareilly Barelwi (North India)27.
If one wants to break down Pakistan further according to its ethnic composition, the state is mainly divided into three population groups. The Punjabi, Sindhi and Urdu groups. Baluchis, Pashtuns, Pathans and countless smaller ethnic groups simultaneously point to the history of the state and thus to the ethnic composition28. In addition to Kashmir and India, the arbitrary demarcation of 1947 and the geographical location, the ethnic composition is one of the greatest negative factors for the Islamic republic. A kind of "internal nationalism" has arisen within Pakistan, which is "the weakest", primarily due to the various autonomous areas Represents the seam at which Pakistan could disintegrate "29.
But what state is the state currently in? The answer to this question should, among other things, be the task of this work! The nuclear weapons program and security policy are to be analyzed and put in relation to the domestic and foreign policy relevant factors.
After having survived four military dictatorships within 63 years, Pakistan is now headed by President Ali Zaradari following democratic elections. Nevertheless, Pakistan is not gaining stability or is only gaining it slowly. The Islamic Republic currently ranks 10th on the "Failed State Index". The influence of the military, Kashmir, the conflict on the "Durrand Line" and much more. are just a few of the reasons that led to this placement30. The question arises of whether a failed state can be in possession of nuclear weapons and how can Pakistan guarantee that these devastating weapons of destruction will not fall into the hands of terrorists (whatever their beliefs)?
2. Nuclear weapons in general
2010 marks the 65th anniversary of the end of World War II. In Russia, among other things, in the presence of the German Chancellor Angela Merkel on May 9th, “the victory over National Socialism and the end of the annihilation of whole peoples” was celebrated31. On May 9, 1945, however, only the war in Europe ended. In the Pacific, Japan and the United States continued to fight a fierce battle. With the dropping of the first atomic bomb on August 6th, 1945 on Hiroshima and the second atomic bomb on August 9th on Nagasaki, the USA used a hitherto unknown weapon, the consequences of which would be devastating and felt decades later. Between 150,000 and 250,000 people fell directly victim to the bombs, and more than 50,000 were severely burned. So the world has been in the atomic age for 65 years32. But how did the development of nuclear weapons (generally called atomic bombs) come about, which states dispose of such weapons and the corresponding delivery systems and which institutions, regulations and treaties are there that are intended to prevent or control their use and spread?
The development of nuclear weapon technology goes back to the two German chemists Otto Hahn and Fritz Strassmann. In December 1938, the two German scientists discovered nuclear fission. Knowing that an uncontrollable chain reaction could unleash an extraordinary destructive force, the German Reich began to set up a nuclear weapons program. However, any efforts to build a German atomic bomb had to be stopped33.
With a letter from the German physicist Albert Einstein to the American President Franklin D. Roosevelt, in which he referred to Hahn's findings and expressed his fears about German nuclear weapons, the development of an American atomic bomb began in August 1942.The top secret "Manhattan Project" (MED Manhattan Engineer District) was founded under the direction of the American physicist Robert Julius Oppenheimer. Up to 300,000 people worked on the development of nuclear weapons at three production facilities (Oak Ridge, Hanvord, Savanah River) and an assembly and research facility in Los Alamos34.
In December of the same year, American scientists managed to carry out the first nuclear chain reaction. The first nuclear reactor of mankind (“Chicago Pile 1”), which was erected shortly before under the football stadium of the University of Chicago, made it possible to achieve the required critical mass. This should make it possible to build the atomic bomb. In the end, however, it would take longer than two years before the first successful nuclear weapon test came about. On July 16, 1945, at 5:30 am local time, the first successful ignition of a nuclear weapon took place. The weapon originally planned and developed against the German Empire was, as already described above, ultimately used against the Japanese Empire. The uranium bomb "Little Boy" and the plutonium bomb "Fat Man" made clear the differences in construction, possible uses and dimensions35.
However, it is not possible to understand how nuclear weapons are defined from the development of nuclear weapons. At this point it must first be stated that when you talk about nuclear weapons you are talking about a category of weapons of mass destruction36. "Nuclear weapons are weapons in which the explosive effects and the secondary effects (radiation, radioactive contamination, electromagnetic impulses) of nuclear fission or nuclear fusion are used for military purposes"37. Nuclear weapons are weapons whose primary and secondary effects can be generated with the help of two different physical principles.
On the one hand, the principle of nuclear fission can lead to a successful nuclear weapon detonation. For nuclear weapons based on the principle of nuclear fission, mainly plutonium 239 or uranium 235 are required38. The method of nuclear fission was tested by O. Hahn and F. Strassmann, as described above. It is based on the consideration of unstable atomic nuclei. During nuclear fission, an atomic nucleus is bombarded with neutrons. This “bombardment” is relatively easy because the particles in the atomic nucleus are positively charged (the so-called protons).
Finally, when neutrons meet protons, the nucleus breaks apart and the fission is complete. Two new nuclei are created and additional neutrons as a “waste product”. These in turn can split new nuclei. A chain reaction occurs (theoretically). During this physical reaction, an enormous amount of heat is released as a result of the cleavage. A "critical mass" is created that must not be exceeded39. Nuclear weapons can develop an explosive force of up to 20 kilotons40.
Fusion weapons, ie weapons based on the principle of nuclear fusion, represent the second physical variant of nuclear weapons. In contrast to nuclear fission, the principle of nuclear fusion is based on the fusion of hydrogen isotopes41. Under high pressure and by applying great heat, it is theoretically possible to fuse, for example, tritium or lithium isotopes. In contrast to nuclear fission, and this is where the “advantage” of nuclear fusion lies, there is no critical mass with this method. At this point, however, it is important to mention that fusion cannot function without nuclear fission. Only nuclear fission is able (until today) to provide the required fusion heat. The “trigger” precedes nuclear fusion42.
After the introduction to the nature and technology of nuclear weapons or atomic bombs, the focus should now be on their spread. It should be remembered that the United States of America is the only corporate body43 who have ever used nuclear weapons. The issue of the uranium and plutonium bombs ordered by President Harry Truman to be dropped over Japanese cities has already been mentioned several times44. The fact that until today only the USA has made use of the knowledge and possession of nuclear weapons does not change the fact that there are still many more states that are in possession of such weapons or are striving to obtain them. But another perspective has to be considered:
"Nuclear weapons are regarded as insidious and cruel weapons, but they are also ultimate weapons (Bernard Brodie) and they are recognized as having the potential to end or prevent wars."45 And of course not only the USA is aware of this statement. After all, this statement is also based on the fact of the Cold War, which was shaped by the constant arms race between the USA and the former Soviet Union. And not only on a conventional level, but above all in the nuclear field. Both in the development of technology, as well as in the development of carrier systems and propulsion systems, the Soviet Union was always quickly on the same level as the USA46. In addition to the United States of America and today's Russia, three other nation states have the right to possess nuclear weapons. According to the "Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty" (NVV)47 From 1968 and 1970, respectively, five states have the right to possess nuclear weapons and nuclear explosive devices, the USA and Russia mentioned above, as well as Great Britain, France and China48.
North Korea also declared itself a nuclear weapon state in 2005. The communist state had terminated the NPT three years earlier (the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty had been signed in 1985). This took place against the background of the anti-terror policy of the former American President George W. Bush Jr. who declared North Korea a "rogue state". Relations between North Korea and the USA, but above all between North and South Korea, are steadily deteriorating. On December 9, 2006, a year after Kim Jong Ill had proclaimed the People's Republic as a nuclear state, the first nuclear weapons test was carried out. In April 2009, a long-range missile was finally tested before another nuclear test was carried out the following May49. Another nuclear weapon state that has never called itself one is Israel. The Israeli nuclear arsenal is estimated to have up to 200 systems. The latest reports are based on information from 1986 and 1999, respectively. The nuclear engineer Mordechai Vanunu published various details of the nuclear weapons program. He was therefore sentenced to 18 years in prison. In 1999 Vanunus reports were published again. Among other things, it was written about the number already mentioned, but also about the fact that, with French help, a nuclear weapons program was started in Dimona in 1964. Shimon Perez, the former Foreign Minister, confirmed possession of nuclear weapons50.
Israel as a nuclear weapon state is currently bringing up another state, South Africa. South Africa had some nuclear weapons as early as the 1980s. After apartheid, the weapons were handed over to the United States for destruction51. New documents now show very clearly who is said to have delivered the nuclear weapons to Africa. The English newspaper "The Guardian" published an article on May 24, 2010, in which the relationship between Israel and Africa was exposed. The basis is a "top secret" document from 1975 between Israel's former Foreign Minister Perez and South Africa's former Defense Minister Botha52. Other states, such as Brazil, are more or less obviously striving for nuclear weapons. President Luna da Silva also links the possession of nuclear weapons to the strength and reputation of a nation state53.
Iran and Saudi Arabia will not be dealt with any further at this point. Iran is very obviously aiming to build nuclear weapons, although there is no open position on this. As far as Saudi Arabia is concerned, trade magazines reported back in 2003 that the kingdom was considering the option of nuclear weapons as a deterrent54There are still two states that have been calling themselves nuclear-armed states since May 1998: Pakistan and India. Both states and their nuclear programs are described below.
3. Pakistan and the atomic bomb
“Pakistan has always endeavored to catch up with its overpowering neighbor (India). In the conventional field, as the defeat in 1971 showed, this was unlikely to be achievable. The President of Pakistan therefore already spoke in 1971 of the "Islamic bomb" that Pakistan must acquire. "55
1 India and Pakistan. The elephant and the Pekingese; in: The Economist, March 24, 2000.
2 Kemal, S. (2007): 60 Years of Pakistan Awakening, Achievements and Challenges; German-Pakistani Forum Berlin e.V., page 8.
3 Pakistan - Foreign Policy Orientation; on: http://www.globaldefence.net/kulturen-im- konflikt / islamische-kulturen / 248-iranische-staaten-pakistan.html? start = 2. (Accessed: June 3rd, 2010).
4 Kemal, S. (2007): 60 Years of Pakistan Awakening, Achievements and Challenges; German-Pakistani Forum Berlin e.V., page 8.
5 Pakistan - Timeline; to: http://liportal.inwent.org/fileadmin/user_upload/oeffnahm/Pakistan/20_geschichte-staat/zeitt.pdf Access: (01.06.2010).
6 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
7 Two Nations Theory as Legitimation of a State ?; P.2.
8 the Pakistan resolution is also known as the Lahore resolution.
9 Sprung, C .: History since independence; on: http://www.suedasien.info/laenderinfos/275. (Accessed: May 31, 2010).
10 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
11 Bengal represented more than 50% of the total population and has its own language12 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
13 1949: newly founded Awami League (leader of the later state founder Mujibur Rahman).
14 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
15 Sprung, C .: History since independence; on: http://www.suedasien.info/laenderinfos/275. (Accessed: May 31, 2010).
16 before that, Kashmir was practically independent, even after the division of British India17 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
18 As early as 1972, the "KANUPP", the first Pakistani nuclear power plant, went online, and the "RAPS" nuclear power plant in Ryasthan, India, in 1971.
19 Pakistan: http://www.weltalmanach.de/staat/staat_detail.php?fwa_id=pakistan. (Accessed: May 31, 2010).
20 Embassy of the Federal Republic of Germany: Germany: http://www.europa-auf-einen-blick.de/deutschland/index.php (accessed: May 31, 2010).
21 from 1947/48 there was no constitution in Pakistan. The state and most of the institutions were based on the British “Goverment of India Act” of 1935.
22 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
24 Pakistan: http://www.weltalmanach.de/staat/staat_detail.php?fwa_id=pakistan. (Accessed: May 31, 2010)
25 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
26 named after the seventh Imam Ishmael.
27 Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
28 Population and religions: http://www.dpgk.de/bevoelkerung-und-religionen-in-pakistan/. (Accessed: June 1, 2010).
29 see: Scholz, J .: The Pakistan Complex; Pendo - Verlag, Munich.
30 The Failed State Index 2009: http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/06/22/2009_failed_states_index_interactive_map_and_ranki ngs. (Accessed: May 31, 2010)
31 cf.: Russia celebrates the 65th anniversary of the victory over Hitler; on: http://www.zeit.de/newsticker/2010/5/9/iptc-bdt-20100508-500-24777958xml?page=2 (accessed: 02.06.2010).
32 Krekeler, S .: ABC information on nuclear weapons (nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons); on:
http://www.globaldefence.net/waffensysteme/seesysteme/tuerkei___schnellboot_onuk_mrtp_33_42_29.ht ml? start = 4. (Accessed: June 5, 2010).
33 History of the atomic bomb; on: http://www.nac-info.net/bomb/history.html (02.06.2010).
34 Krekeler, S .: ABC information on nuclear weapons (nuclear weapons, nuclear weapons); on: http://www.globaldefence.net/waffensysteme/seesysteme/tuerkei___schnellboot_onuk_mrtp_33_42_29.ht ml? start = 4. (Accessed: June 5, 2010).
36 The following definitions of weapons of mass destruction are generally used in the international debate: nuclear weapons, chemical weapons, biological weapons.
37 see: Woyke, W. (Ed.) (2008): Hand Wortbuch der Internationale Politik; Leske + Budrich, Opladen, p.431.
39 von Ardenne, M. (2005): Effects of physics and their application; Publisher - Harri Deutsch, Frankfurt am Main.
40 Woyke, W. (Ed.) (2008): Concise Dictionary of International Politics; Leske + Budrich, Opladen.
41 Colloquially also called hydrogen bombs.
42 Huber, G. (2000): Nuclear Fusion; on: http://www.abc-waffen.de/Atom/aufbau.html. (Accessed: June 1, 2010).
43 the term corporation may seem confusing and incorrect here. But in the later course, especially when looking at the Indian and Pakistani nuclear doctrines, it will become clear that not only nation states may be able to obtain nuclear weapons.
44 Huber, G. (2000): Nuclear Fusion; on: http://www.abc-waffen.de/Atom/aufbau.html. (Accessed: June 1st, 2010).
45 Woyke, W. (Ed.) (2008): Concise Dictionary of International Politics; Leske + Budrich, Opladen, p.433.
46 Huber, G. (2000): Nuclear Fusion; on: http://www.abc-waffen.de/Atom/aufbau.html. (Accessed: June 1, 2010).
47 also called the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty.
48 Woyke, W. (Ed.) (2008): Concise Dictionary of International Politics; Leske + Budrich, Opladen.
49 North Korea; to: http://www.atomwaffena-z.info/atomwaffen- heute / atomwaffenstaat / nordkorea / index.html (accessed: 01.06.2010).
50 Israel; on: http://www.atomwaffena-z.info/atomwaffen-heute/atomwaffenstaat/israel/index.html. (Accessed: June 4, 2010)
51 Woyke, W. (Ed.) (2008): Concise Dictionary of International Politics; Leske + Budrich, Opladen.
52 McGrea, C. (2010): Revealed: how Israel offered to sell South Africa nuclear weapons; on: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/may/23/israel-south-africa-nuclear-weapons. (Accessed: June 2nd, 2010).
53 Rühle, H. Flirting with the Bomb - Brazil Develops Nuclear Weapons; in: Der Spiegel No. 18/2010.
54 Saudis are considering acquiring nuclear weapons; on: http://www.spiegel.de/politik/ausland/0,1518,266154,00.html. (Accessed: June 7, 2010)
55 Pakistan Foreign Policy Orientation; on: http://www.globaldefence.net/kulturen-im-konflikt/islamische-kulturen/248-iranische-staat-pakistan.html?start=2 (accessed: 02.06.2010)
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