Why pneumonia causes shortness of breath
Almirall J, Serra-Prat M, Bolibar I, Balasso V. Risk Factors for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults: A Systematic Review of Observational Studies. Respiration 2017; 94 (3): 299-311.
Baskaran V, Murray RL, Hunter A, Lim WS, McKeever ™. Effect of tobacco smoking on the risk of developing community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2019; 14 (7): e0220204.
Briel M, Spoorenberg SM, Snijders D, Torres A, Fernandez-Serrano S, Meduri GU et al. Corticosteroids in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Systematic Review and Individual Patient Data Metaanalysis. Clin Infect Dis 2018; 66 (3): 346-354.
Chang CC, Cheng AC, Chang AB. Over-the-counter (OTC) medications to reduce cough as an adjunct to antibiotics for acute pneumonia in children and adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2014; (3): CD006088.
Chaves GS, Freitas DA, Santino TA, Nogueira PA, Fregonezi GA, Mendonca KM. Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2019; (1): CD010277.
Das RR, Singh M, Naik SS. Vitamin D as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of acute childhood pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2018; (7): CD011597.
German Society for Pediatric Infectious Diseases (DGPI), Society for Pediatric Pneumology (GPP). S2k guideline “Management of community-acquired pneumonia in children and adolescents (pediatric community-acquired pneumonia, pCAP)”. AWMF registration number: 048-013. 03.2017.
German Society for Pneumology and Respiratory Medicine (DGP). S3 guideline: Treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia and prevention - Update 2016. 02.15.2016.
Eppinger M, Müller M. Pediatrics for study and practice. Breisach: Medical publishing and information services; 2016.
Hemilä H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C for preventing and treating pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (8): CD005532.
Herold G. Internal Medicine. Cologne: self-published; 2017.
Horita N, Otsuka T, Haranaga S, Namkoong H, Miki M, Miyashita N et al. Adjunctive Systemic Corticosteroids for Hospitalized Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis 2015 Update. Sci Rep 2015; 5: 14061.
Huang J, Guo J, Li H, Huang W, Zhang T. Efficacy and safety of adjunctive corticosteroids therapy for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98 (13): e14636.
Jiang S, Liu T, Hu Y, Li R, Di X, Jin X et al. Efficacy and safety of glucocorticoids in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98 (26): e16239.
Kasper DL, Fauci AS, Hauser SL, Longo DL, Jameson JL, Loscalzo J. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine. New York: McGraw-Hill; 2015.
Lambert AA, Lam JO, Paik JJ, Ugarte-Gil C, Drummond MB, Crowell TA. Risk of community-acquired pneumonia with outpatient proton-pump inhibitor therapy: a systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One 2015; 10 (6): e0128004.
Larsen T, Lee A, Brooks D, Michieli S, Robson M, Veens J et al. Effect of Early Mobility as a Physiotherapy Treatment for Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Physiother Can 2019; 71 (1): 82-89.
Lux LJ, Posey RE, Daniels LS, Henke DC, Durham C, Jonas DE et al. Pharmacokinetic / Pharmacodynamic Measures for Guiding Antibiotic Treatment for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia. 11/2014. (AHRQ Comparative Effectiveness Reviews; Volume 136).
Marti C, Grosgurin O, Harbarth S, Combescure C, Abbas M, Rutschmann O et al. Adjunctive Corticotherapy for Community Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. PLoS One 2015; 10 (12): e0144032.
National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE). Pneumonia: Diagnosis and management of community- and hospital-acquired pneumonia in adults. December 03, 2014. (NICE Clinical Guidelines; Volume 191).
Nguyen PA, Islam M, Galvin CJ, Chang CC, An SY, Yang HC et al. Meta-analysis of proton pump inhibitors induced risk of community-acquired pneumonia. Int J Qual Health Care 2020; 32 (5): 292-299.
Prina E, Ranzani OT, Torres A. Community-acquired pneumonia. Lancet 2015; 386 (9998): 1097-1108.
Robert Koch Institute (RKI). Recommendations of the Standing Vaccination Commission (STIKO) at the Robert Koch Institute - 2019/2020. 08/22/2019. (Epidemiological Bulletin; Volume 34).
Robert Koch Institute (RKI). SARS-CoV-2 profile on Coronavirus-Disease-2019 (COVID-19). 08/07/2020.
Siemieniuk RA, Meade MO, Alonso-Coello P, Briel M, Evaniew N, Prasad M et al. Corticosteroid Therapy for Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 2015; 163 (7): 519-528.
Federal Statistical Office (Destatis). Most common causes of death in 2018.
Stern A, Skalsky K, Avni T, Carrara E, Leibovici L, Paul M. Corticosteroids for pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2017; (12): CD007720.
World Health Organization (WHO). Pneumonia. 08/02/2019.
Yakoob MY, Salam RA, Khan FR, Bhutta ZA. Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2016; (11): CD008824.
Yang M, Yan Y, Yin X, Wang BY, Wu T, Liu GJ et al. Chest physiotherapy for pneumonia in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2013; (2): CD006338.
Zhou YF, Luo BA, Qin LL. The association between vitamin D deficiency and community-acquired pneumonia: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore) 2019; 98 (38): e17252.
IQWiG health information is intended to help understand the advantages and disadvantages of important treatment options and health care offers.
Whether one of the options we have described actually makes sense in individual cases can be clarified in a conversation with a doctor. Gesundheitsinformation.de can support the discussion with doctors and other experts, but not replace it. We do not offer individual advice.
Our information is based on the results of high quality studies. They are created by a team of authors from medicine, science and the editorial team and reviewed by experts outside IQWiG. In our methods, we describe in detail how we develop our texts and keep them up to date.
- Is it a bad thing to be called silly?
- How can I get a superpower
- What's in the dog house
- What does chewing tobacco do
- How does gravity bend light
- Why is China the most developed country
- Who designed the first uber app
- Tin can cause lead poisoning
- How different are Indians from whites
- What is a vegan diet
- Can the CDC be trusted
- What is the richest city in Brunei
- Will Najib Razak survive the 1MDB scandal?
- How can an Indian lose weight
- Basically, Indians and Bangladeshis are the same people
- How can information be power
- Which are better Bosch or DeWalt tools
- Are the people nice there
- What is your Bitcoin earnings history
- Can cockroach poison kill a person
- How different are Indians from whites
- Are there Catholics in Pakistan
- Is it worth buying an AirPod Pro
- Which country has the most vegetarians