How popular are Indonesian songs in Malaysia
The Indonesian education system is chronically underfunded, although Indonesia invests around 20% of the national budget in the education sector. Figures on the education system show a clear need to catch up compared to countries with a similar level of economic development.
The Indonesian educational landscape is very diverse.
The school system is tripartite. It consists of a six-year elementary school (Sekolah Dasar - SD), a three-year middle school (Sekolah Menengah Pertama - SMP) and a three-year high school (Sekolah Menengah Atas-SMA).
In rural areas in particular, middle and high schools are often difficult to reach.
There are also middle and high schools in which job-relevant knowledge is imparted. Despite increasing efforts by the Ministry of Education, there is still little direct cooperation with business. In comparison with other countries in the region, the low level of education in Indonesia is a significant disadvantage for foreign investors.
In the context of decentralization, the regions are currently given more rights to adapt curricula to the needs of the local economy. Large areas of the education system are now also administered independently by the districts and provinces. As a result, among other things, the quality of schooling in poor districts and provinces or those ruled by particularly corrupt local leaders has deteriorated significantly. This is especially true in remote provinces like West Papua.
The quality of school education is poor compared to other Southeast Asian countries. The illiteracy rate was 6.1% in 2017. In the 2015 Pisa study, Indonesia ranked 66th for reading comprehension, 64th for science, and 65th for math (out of 72 countries).
In the Pearson Study, which measures the quality of education, Indonesia came in last out of 40 countries surveyed. Natural sciences play a rather subordinate role in the state education system. An important part of school education within the framework of nation building is also the education for a national sense of togetherness.
Around half of the Indonesian workers only have a primary school diploma. Women attended school for an average of 7.5 years, men for 8.4 years.
The quality of the universities, with the exception of a few (mostly state) elite universities, can hardly keep up in an international comparison. Most universities are privately funded. There are 4007 private universities compared to only 307 state universities (as of 2018). About 6.5 million Indonesians are currently studying. 24% of the degrees in 2017 were in education, 4.8% in human sciences and arts, 18.1% in business administration and law, 3.2% in natural sciences and mathematics, 4.0% in agricultural sciences, 8.9% in Computer Science, 7.3% in Engineering and 17.4% in Health Sciences.
In 2019, the number of degrees was 1.2 million, including business administration and law: 18.3%; Science and Mathematics: 3.3%; Computer science: 8.3%; Engineering: 7.9%.
The state universities from which a large part of the Indonesian political elite are recruited include the Universitas Gajah Mada, the Universitas Indonesia, the Institut Teknologi Bandung and the Institut Pertanian Bogor.
Around 4200 Indonesian students study in Germany.
Some universities funded by Saudi Arabia are currently contributing to the radicalization within Indonesian Islam.
In addition to the state school system, the Indonesian educational landscape also has a large number of schools and universities under Christian or Islamic sponsorship. In these religiously bound schools, the pupils and students often get better educational opportunities than in the state school system. Due to scholarships and fee discounts, they often offer a great opportunity, especially for poor families who would otherwise not be able to afford a secondary school or university.
As before, a large proportion of Indonesian students are barely or not at all able to read English-language literature. At the same time, since there are only a few books available, there is only a limited supply of Indonesian-language textbooks.
An important weak point of vocational training in Indonesia is its lack of practical relevance.
The promotion of environmental awareness has so far not been an issue in many Indonesian schools. School books either do not mention this topic at all or only marginally.
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