How do submarines stay undetectable?
Updated Nov 30, 2020
Air War France
The heavy cruiser Prinz Eugen is damaged in an RAF bombing raid on Brest by a hit in the artillery control center and the command center (60 dead). The attack hits a "nerve center" of the ship, the heavy artillery can no longer be used. The repairs - including the necessary final reconciliation between fire control and artillery - last until February 4, 1942 (!), 8 days before the start of the canal breakthrough (Op . »Cerberus«, sd).
The Soviets evacuate Riga and Dünamünde. The cruiser Kirov, who cannot pass the Irbenstrasse because of the mine situation is cleared and with the destroyers Grozyashchi, Smetlivy and Stoiki Brought to Tallinn through the shallow waters of Moonsund. The submarines get caught in the move from Dünamünde to Reval M-79 and M-77 on German mine barriers and are damaged, M-81 (Kptlt. Zubkov) goes on 1.7. lost on a mine of the »Gotha« barrier.
Advance of German army troops on Murmansk. On June 29 is the XIX. Geb.-Korps (Gen.d.Geb.Tr. Dietl) with the 2nd Geb.-Div. from the Petsamo area, with the 3rd Geb.-Div. started the attack in the direction of Murmansk from the Yläluostari area. On 1.7. The Jäg.-Regt building closes early. 136 with 2 Batl. the access to the small fisher peninsula and forms with 1 Batl. a bridgehead over the Titovka. In support of those parts of the Soviet 14th Rifle Div. lands on June 30th a Soviet unit (Kpt. 2.Rg. E.M. Simonov) with the destroyers Kuibyshev,Uritsky and the underground hunters MO-121 and MO-123 Reinforcements at the bottleneck of the Fischer Peninsula and shoot at German attack tips. Attacks from Ju 87 the IV./LG.l miss the Soviet ships, especially the U-Jäger MO-121. Until July 4th push the German Geb.-Div. the Soviet 14th and 52nd Rifle Div. back over the Liza and form several bridgeheads. The Soviet troops are taken from Motovski Bay by the guard ships Groza and Smerch repeatedly supported by artillery fire.
The Soviets were able to hold the Germans off the coast of the Baltic States by means of extensive mine barriers. The 5th and 31st minesweeping flotilla initially create a blocking gap to Libau. On 2.7. the minesweeper M.3134. On 3.7. The 31st M-Flotilla reports that the Memel-Libau supply route is mine-free, and on 5 July the 5th M-Flotilla works together with it Lock breaker 6 and 11 a blocking gap for the coastal path from Libau to Windau. This is followed by mining operations north of Cape Tachkona (July 1), east of the "Apolda" barrier (July 2), south of "Corbetha" and west of Soelo Sound (July 5). The mine ship Hum, the 5R flotilla and the 1st, 2nd and 3rd S flotilla throw a total of 196 mines and 130 explosive buoys.
1. Landing of American troops in Iceland
American occupation of Iceland. First use of the "North East Greenland Patrol" with coast guard cutters Northland and North Star. US Navy Patrol Wing 7 begins reconnaissance flights over the Northwest Atlantic from Argentia, Newfoundland. US Navy Warship Association TF.19 (RAdm. McDougal Le Breton) with the battleships Arkansas,new York, the cruisers Brooklyn,Nashville, the destroyers Plunkett, Niblack, Benson, Gleaves, Mayo, Charles F Hughes, Lansdale, Hilary P. Jones (Desron 7, Capt. Kauffman), Ellis, Bernadou, Upshur, Lea (Desdiv 60) and Buck, sets course for Iceland with a mission to land from Argentia. On July 4th start Catalina- Aircraft of the VP 72 USN, based on the seaplane tender Goldsborough, with cover operations for the approaching Iceland landing party. On July 6th put the US vans Munargo and Chateau Thierry Personnel and equipment for the construction of an air force base on Tunugdliarfik Fjord (Greenland). On 7/7 reaches TF.19 Reykjavik with the troop transports William P Biddle, Ink pen, Heywood, Orizaba, the freighters Arcturus, Hamul, the tanker Salamon and the tractor Cherokee and sets the 1st US Marine Corps Brigade (BrigGen. Marston) ashore to relieve the British crew. After the company has been completed according to plan, TF.19 will return from July 12th to 19th. back to Argentia.
Brit. Submarine Operations (I). Aegean:Torbay (LtCdr. Miers) sunk on 2.7. in the area of the Cyclades north of Kea the ital. Città di Tripoli (2933 GRT), on July 4th / 5th in the Doro Canal with artillery 2 motor sailers and on 5.7. at Mykonos with a torpedo six-bay the Italian submarine Jantina (KKpt. Politi †). From July 8th to 10th sinks it at Kythera with artillery and explosive cartridges 4 motor gliders, which are used by German army troops as a means of transport. Shipwrecked people are not spared, but on July 4th and 9th. killed with explosive charges or machine guns (war crimes). On July 10th torpedoed Torbay the Italian tanker in the sea canal Strombo (5232 GRT, it will be declared a total loss on August 23). - Central Mediterranean. On 2.7. engages Urge (LtCdr. Tomkinson) announced an unidentified auxiliary cruiser. Upholder (LtCdr. Wanklyn) sunk on 3.7. south of the Strait of Messina from a convoy the ital. Laura Cosulich (5867 GRT). The British submarine triumph (LtCdr. Woods) sunk on 6.7. The Italian freighter in a lengthy overwater battle in front of Benghazi Ninfea (607 GRT) and the securing gunboat DeLutti. The submarine is also hit and has to call at Malta. — Parthian, Perseus, regent, Rorqual, Cachalot, Unique, Upright, the Dutch O.23 and O.24 and the greek Papanikolis, Nereus and Glavkos do not carry out any attacks during this time.
German submarines operate in a spacious setupU 201, U 562, U 564, U 561, U 559, U 557, U 553, U 202, U 111, U 108, U 98, U 96 and U 77 with little success in the central North Atlantic. On 1.7. Report Fw 200 the I./KG.40 den Convoy OG.66, Their direction indicators are received by submarines, the German deciphering service also provides the locations of the convoy, but only comes from the scheduled boats U108 briefly in the vicinity, but is pushed back again, U 79, U 96, U 557 and U77 do not come near. A Fw 200 Damages the British "Ocean Boarding Vessel" used to secure OG.66 Malvernian heavy. After long attempts to rescue the ship, the ship is on July 7th. given up. The operation will be on 3.7. from B.d.U. canceled. - sink on single riders:U108 (Kptlt. Scholtz) on 1.7. the brit. Toronto City (2486 GRT), U96 (Kptlt. Lehmann-Willenbrock) on 5.7. the brit. Anselm (5954 GRT) and U98 (Kptlt. Gysae) on July 9th the British freighter Designer (5945 GRT) and Inverness (4897 GRT). U143 operates unsuccessfully in the north canal.
US Task Group TG.2.8 with carrier Yorktown, the heavy cruisers Quincy,Vincennes and the destroyers Wainwright, Hammann, Mustin,Stack conduct a neutrality patrol from Hampton Roads. Yorktown, Wainwright and Stack return on July 12th back to Hampton Roads, the other ships leave on July 15th. in Bermuda a.
2. Marcello-class submarine in the port of Naples
Operations by an Italian submarine group against convoys west of Gibraltar. The marching out Bianchi (KKpt. Tosoni-Pittoni) is on 5.7. still in the Bay of Biscay from the British submarine Tigris (Cdr. Bone) sunk. Sighted the same day Torelli (KKpt. De Giacomo) a small convoy heading west onto the ThereVinci, Baracca, Malaspina and Morosini be set. Unsuccessful attack Torellis on a destroyer. Supply of U 103 (Kptlt. Schützen) on 6.7. by steamer Corrientes British protests in the Spanish port of Las Palmas. On 7/7 sifts Torelli another outgoing convoy on the Morosini, ThereVinci and Baracca as U103 but they cannot find the convoy (possibly HG.66). From July 14th to 17th sink Morosini (KKpt. Fraternale) the British single driver Rupert de Larrinaga (5358 GRT) and the "Ocean Boarding Vessel" Lady Somers (8194 GRT), Malaspina (Kptlt. Prini) the Greek Nikoklis (3575 GRT) and the brit. Guelma (4402 GRT).
South Atlantic / Indian Ocean / Pacific
Operations German auxiliary cruiser: After taking over fuel from Ship 16 / Atlantis from 1 to 6 July marching in the South Atlantic Ship 36 / Orion in the Atlantic northwards back into the German sphere of influence (see July 29). Ship 16 marches through the Indian Ocean and then south of Australia towards the Pacific. Ship 41 / cormorant remains in the Indian Ocean and Ship 45 / Comet runs after sinking his auxiliary ship adjutant on 1.7. and after supply through Anneliese Essberger (14.-21.7.) South of Tubuai through the Pacific east to the Galapagos Islands. Ship 16, 41 and 45 remain unsuccessful during this time.
Waters around Great Britain
German planes sink in the North Sea on 1.7. north of Cromer the Homefire (1262 GRT), on 4.7. the marine trawler at Flamborough Head Akranes (358 GRT), on 5.7. before Sunderland the Snaefell (466 GRT), on July 10th. north of Hartlepool the fishing trawler Isabella Fowlie (196 GRT) and on July 29th northwest the Orkneys the fishing steamer Strathlochy (212 GRT) and in front of the mouth of the Tynes the Adam’s Beck (2816 GRT). Will be damaged on 6.7. northwest von Cromer from a southerly escort the swed. Birgitta (1303 GRT) and east of it from a northbound convoy the North Devon (3658 GRT), on July 13th. east of the Humber Estuary the Scorton (4813 GRT), on July 16. south of the mouth of the Tynes Elizabete (2039 BRT), on July 17th. northeast from Middlesbrough miners Emerald Queen (481 GRT) and on July 20. before the Humber Estuary the Umvuma (4419 GRT).
At the West Coast Great Britain sink German planes south of Cardiff on July 4th. the Lunan (363 GRT), in the Bristol Channel on 5.7. the Fowey Rose (470 GRT, by He 115 with air torpedo), north-west. from Trevose on July 10th the norw. Svint (1174 GRT) and west of Holy Island on July 15. the Farfield (468 GRT). Western Pembroke is damaged on July 7th. the norw. tanker Ferncourt (9918 GRT). An attack of 6 He 115 of Kü.Fl.Gr.406 on a convoy in St. Georgs Canal on July 10th. remains unsuccessful, a success report of the pilot Atlantic about 5 sinkings on this day remains, except for the Svint, unconfirmed.
US battleships patrols. In 7-14 day alternation in the mean. North Atlantic deployed with the support of destroyers: Texas (17.-25.7.) With Rhind and Mayrant; New Mexico (26.6-4.7., 25.7.-2.8.) With Hughes and Russell; Mississippi(July 3rd-11th,) with O'Brien, Wake up, Stack, Sterett and Rowan; and Idaho(10.-18.7.) With Morris and Sims.
Soviet. Submarine Operations: Before the Norway. Arctic Coast operate Shch-422, Shch-402,and D-3 in Lopphavet, Shch-401 before Kibergsnesetund Shch-403 in front of Gorlo Street. On July 14th engages Shch-402 (Kptlt. Stolbov) unsuccessfully launched the steamer in front of the Porsangerfjord Hanau on, the same day Shch-401 (Kptlt. Moiseev) in front of Vardö the submarines UJ177 and UJ178. On 7/19 becomes Shch-421 Slightly damaged in an air raid on the Soviet Polyarnoe base. Operate from the small submarines M-174 (2x), M-175, M-172, M-176 and M-171 each for a few days in the Varangerfjord and in front of the German bases there.
Waters around Great Britain
German planes drop more than 200 air mines, almost exclusively in the Thames estuary. Except for small vehicles like the minesweepers Devon County and Receptive goes before Southend on July 13th. the Collingdoc (1780 GRT) lost to a mine hit. Damage in the Irish Sea west of St. Bee's Head on July 4th. the auxiliary ship Goldfinch (454 GRT) and in the North Sea west of Cromer on July 11th. the River Trent (246 GRT).
The convoys SC.36 – SC.38 (a total of 103 ships) and HX.136 – HX.141 (a total of 336 ships) and the eastbound convoys OB.341 – OB.349 (a total of 434 ships) and ON.1 going to Great Britain –ON.3 (149 ships) cross the Atlantic without loss or damage. For convoys going eastwards starts on July 26th. with the ON.1 a new "count".
General situation / Japan
The Japanese Privy Council decides to continue the military advance to the south and to postpone the "northern problem", ie the fight against the Soviet Union. In the case of further action in the south, which includes the occupation of Indochina, a war with Great Britain and the USA is to be accepted.
3. Mine clearance ship MRS 11
Soviet. Destroyer Association (KAdm. Drozd, see June 24-27) with Silny, Serdity, Strashny, Stoiki, Grozyashchi and Smetlivy carries out mining operations from Moonsund in Irbenstrasse. On 2.7. Strashny a severe mine hit. On July 6th to meet Serdity and Silny when throwing mines on the German Mine clearance ship 11 / Osnabrück and the minesweeper M.31: they throw their remaining mines overboard and run under combat fire, whereby Silny receives a slight hit. The two German ships reach Dünamünde undamaged after 4 unsuccessful Soviet air raids. On a mine lock by the Soviet mine-layer Marti from 3.7.41 north of Reval runs on 11.6.1942 MRS 11 / Osnabrück.
Conquest of Syria by British and Gaullist troops against violent French. Resistance.
British naval operations manager: RAdm. King. - French Navy Commander-in-Chief Syria: KAdm. Gouton.
2.7.: The French 4th Naval Aviation Group (Kptlt. Hubert †) attacks Haifa. The austr. cruiser Perth shot at, covered by Naiad, Kandahar, Kingston, Havock and Griffin, French Positions on the coast.
4.7.: A Albacore-Torpedo aircraft of the 829th Squadron sunk the French in front of the port of Antalya in Turkish territorial waters. Supply steamer SaintDidier (2778 GRT). A second ship with supplies for Syria, chateauYquem (2536 GRT), is called back when it turns out that a breakthrough through the British blockade is impossible.
4.-7.6.: The cruisers Naiad and Ajax and the destroyers Jackal, Nizam, Kimberley, Havock and Hasty bombard the Syrian coast at Damour, the last fortified position before Beirut.
9.-12.7.: The French Flotilla leader Guépard, Valmy and Vauquelin run from Syria to Saloniki to find a French that has arrived overland there. Inf.-Btl. to record. The formation is captured by British aerial reconnaissance 200 nm off the Syrian coast and goes to Toulon as ordered.
12.7.: Armistice in Syria after General Dentz accepted the British conditions. The submarines Morse and Caiman relocated to Bizerta.
14.7.: Signing of a ceasefire agreement.
Transport companies Italian submarines: Zoea (2), Corridoni (2) and Atropo (1) bring 268 t of supplies to Bardia (Libya). Operate off the coast of Cyrenaica and Egypt until 17.7. the Italian submarines Malachite, Ametista, Set embrini and Dagabur. Only comes from them Malachite on 3.7. to the shot, but missed the cruiser Phoebe with 2 destroyers.
The German miner Grunt brings out another mine barrier between "Apolda" and "Corbetha", secured by 5 boats each of the 2nd S-Flotilla and 5th R-Flotilla.
Run from the submarines of the Baltic Fleet S-7 and S-9 on 3.7. to the area in front of Libau and Stolpmünde, they will return on July 21. back. S-9 will be on July 20th on the march back from the German U 140 missed and damaged in an air raid. On July 13th to run S-11 (Kptlt. Sereda) and S-8 in the area in front of Polangen, S-11 missed there on 19.7. the German Barrier breaker 11 and goes on 2.8. Lost in Soelo-Sund by a mine hit on the German barrier »Coburg«. Also on July 13th to run Shch-322, Shch-323 and Shch-406 to the area off Stockholm and Bornholm, from where they will return in early August. L-3 (Kpt. 3.Rg. Grishenko) lays on 19.7. a mine barrier in front of Brüsterort, on the 1.10. the lett. Kaija (1876 GRT) could have been lost. K-3 runs on 7/26 went to a mining company off Bornholm, but had to abandon the project due to technical problems. About the small boats M-94 and M-98who will be operating in front of the entrance to the Finnenbusen from July 21st M-94 (Oblt.z.S. Dyakov) on July 22nd from the German U-140 (Oblt.z.S. Hellriegel) sunk. M-95 and M-96 expire on short patrols at the end of July.
Defensive mine barriers are deployed on the German coasts against advances by Soviet submarines. On a harbor barrier in front of Kolberg sink on 3.7. the fishing cutter COL. 72, on 7.7. the fishing steamer Neuenfelde (193 GRT) as well as the freighter Luise Bergmann (274 GRT). A serious consequence of own losses will follow in the next few months. The minesweepers are still walking in front of Kolberg alone M 511 (3.11.), M 529 (2.12.), Coastal defense boat DPk 50 / Hollandia (220 GRT, 2.12.) And 3 other merchant ships lost: the finn. Cisil (1847 BRT, 23.8.), Mariann (ex-Dutch Holland, 1991 BRT, 10.9.), Julius H. Stinnes 27 (2530 GRT, 10.9.). Before Libau sinks on July 10th. the underground hunter UJ113 / Nordmark by mine hits, possibly on the German barrier "Weimar" or on a barrier of the Soviet minesweeper Fugas from June (continued July 23-27).
After the end of the operation, march against the SL.78 (see 27.6.-4.7.) U66 and U123 into the Freetown area. The marching back U 69 (Kptlt. Metzler) sunk on 3.7. with artillery the brit. Robert L. Holt (2918 GRT), U 123 (Kptlt. Hardegen) on July 4th the brit. Auditor (5444 GRT), U 66 sunk on 19.7. the brit. Holmside (3433 GRT). Operates off northwest Africa U109, which was released on July 26th in Cadiz (Spain) supplied from a tanker and then the control routes west. Gibraltar monitors. From July 23-29 march U93,U94 and U124 in a rake to the south and then be together with U123 used in the area west of Morocco. The boats are not successful.
Air War Germany
Brit. Bombers carry out a daytime raid on Bremen.
Finn. Submarine Vesikko (Kptlt. Aittola) sinks the Soviet steamer south of Someri Viborg (3185 GRT) after unsuccessful attacks by Vetehinen and Saukko.
Creation of a blocking gap from Libau to Windau by the 5th M-Flotilla, defense against Soviet air raids, slight damage Barrier breaker6 and 11.
The Italian submarines are used between the Balearic Islands and the Algerian coast against advances by the British Force H Corallo and Diaspro set up.
Intensive German air raids by Lehrgeschwader LG.1 in Crete against shipping in the Suez Canal, the importance of which for land warfare in North Africa became clear with the British offensive in June. the British freighter sinks Bencruachan (5290 GRT) in front of Alexandria on from Ju 88 laid air mines. In the night of 8 July grab 25 Ju 88 Alexandria and score bomb hits on a floating dock and the Greek. Antiklia (not confirmed). On the night of July 12th grab about 30 Ju 88 Port Said at. They sink the greek Patrai (1977 BRT) and damage the Dutch Alphard (5483 GRT) heavy. On July 13/14 grab 27 Ju88 Suez, while 4 He 111 Throw mines in the canal. The troop transport Georgic (27,751 GRT) was thrown on fire and did not get under way again until December 1944. The landing ship in the immediate vicinity Glenearn is damaged by ammunition explosions.
First use of the German submarines U81 and U652 off the Kola coast. The Soviet guard ship SKR-29 / Brilliant takes effect on July 12th unsuccessful in front of Svyatoy Nos U 81 at.
Several British submarines operate in the Biscay on the entry and exit routes of the German submarines, against an outbreak of the heavy German warships from Brest into the Atlantic and on suspicious French. Fishing vessels. Tigris (Cdr. Bone) sunk on 5 July the Italian submarine Bianchi, the pol. Sokol missed on 7/7 a big van, and Sealion (Cdr. Bryant) sunk from 7th to 9th July. at Ouessant with artillery several French. Fishing boats. Also the franz. trawler St Pierre Robert (162 GRT) goes on 7.7. lost. Tuna (LtCdr. Cavenagh-Mainwaring) is on July 9th. Accidentally attacked by a British aircraft, missed on July 10th. a submarine (U 203 or U 124) and takes effect on July 19. in vain the prize tanker Benno (ex-norw. Ole Jacob) at. The French Fish steamer Virgo Fidelis (129 GRT) is damaged by an unexplained detonation under the keel, stranded and completely lost. Shortly thereafter, the sinks franz. Fishing vessels underlying Admiralty order repealed. On July 30th missed Seawolf (LtCdr. Raikes) with a torpedo-six fan the incoming German. U 562 before Lorient.
British planes sink on air mines on July 5th. the swedish freighter Stig Gorthon (2262 BRT) in the mouth of the Weser, on July 21. the German freighter Hans Christophersen (1599 GRT) near Terschelling and on July 30th the German fish steamer Pick lifts (238 GRT) before Esbjerg. Will be damaged on July 20th. the German Asia before the mouth of the Ems and on July 27th. the dan. Knut Willemoes north of Heligoland.
4. Soviet submarine fighter MO-125
British aircraft are bombed to become the Swedish ore freighter Aspen (1305 GRT) on July 14th Sunk in front of Ijmuiden. On 7/7 and 19.7. become the freighters Delaware and Hermann Fritzen in front of the Dutch Coast damaged, but brought to Hoek van Holland. Also the German Inga Essberger will be on July 30th damaged by bombs in the Elbe estuary.
On July 6th put the German 2nd and 3rd building div. to attack over the Liza. In support of the beleaguered Soviet 14th and 52nd Rifle Div. A landing unit (Kpt. 1.Rg. Platonov) is formed, consisting of the guard ships Groza, Musson,Tuman, the minesweepers T-890,T-891 and the U-hunters MO-131, MO-132 and MO-133 consists. On the 6th and 7th of July he brings one marine bag each. with a total of 1029 men, whose attack on the German side led to regroupings and the interruption of the attack over the Liza. On July 9th goes T-890 lost by air raid (cont. 13.-21.7.).
Soviet. Submarine operations. Patrol the western part D-5, Shch-201, S-33, Shch-210, Shch-211, S-32 and S-34. Operate in the northwest part M-62, M-33, M-34, M-32, M-36, M-31 and M-35 each for about a week. The Romanian torpedo boat Naluca east of Mangalia attacks a submarine with depth charges, which the Romanian torpedo cutters on the same day Vitelija and Viscolul is sunk with depth charges. As early as the end of June, the Russian submarine was Shch-206 (Kptlt. Karakai) asked in vain to march back. (see June 25-27). – Guard in front of the Soviet bases M-52 (on return on July 14th due to collision with transporter Krasny Kuban damaged),A-3, M-58,and S-31. None of these boats are successful.
The Italian 7th Cruiser Division (DivAdm. Casardi) interprets the barriers on pages 31 and 32 in the Sicily Canal (292 mines, 444 protection devices) with the cruisers Ducad'Aosta and Attendolo and by the 4th Cruiser Division (DivAdm. Giavanola) with the cruisers GiovannidentbandNere,Alberto diGiussano and the destroyers Pigafetta, Pessagno, ThereRecco, ThereMosto, Since Verazzano, Maestrals, Grecale, Scirocco.
The British submarines talisman and Thunderbolt escort HX convoys to the western Atlantic and then move to the Mediterranean. Crosses in front of Cape Verde Clyde, in front of the Faroe Islands P.31 and the free-French. Minerve, and escort the Gibraltar convoys Severn and the Dutch O.21.
Black Sea / Danube
On the night of July 9th The Reni group (see June 24) of the Soviet Danube Flotilla breaks with 3 monitors and 4 armored cutters (BKA114 sunk) upstream to Ismailia. When Soviet forces attempted to land on 11.7. the armored cutters operate on the Kilia arm of the mouth of the Danube BKA-111 and BKA-134 lost to artillery fire; the monitors Zhemchuzhin, Rostovtsev and Martynov relocated back to the mouth of the Danube.
USA / Germany
During a meeting with the Commander-in-Chief of the Navy, Grand Admiral Raeder, Hitler decides that the USA will occupy Iceland, which in the opinion of the Naval War Command has created an almost war situation with the USA in the North Atlantic. Not as an opportunity to take countermeasures. Neither one of the B.d.U. Adm Dönitz proposed mining of Reykjavik (Iceland) by submarines yet another advance of the auxiliary cruiser Ship 45 / Comet against the Los Angeles – Manila route approved.
The mine ships Tannenberg (FKpt. Von Schönermark), Prussia (KKpt. Barthel) and Hanseatic cityDanzig (KKpt. Schroeder) sink on the march back from Finland to Swinoujscie east of the southern tip of Öland on a Swedish mine barrier, which was set up on June 28 at German request as a western addition to the “Wartburg I – III” barriers (see 19.-21.6 .) was laid out. The German head of the association even ignored the warnings the Swedish minesweeper gave him Sandon, who was stationed next to the barrier, signaled. - First German Baltic Sea convoy with 6 coastal motor ships and 4 loggers, secured by 4 M-boats, runs from Libau to Riga.
Air War North Africa
In an air raid on Tripoli, the it. destroyer Since Mosto damaged.
Unsuccessful advance by the Soviet 2nd Destroyer Division (Flotilla Leader Tashkent, destroyer Bodry, Besposhchadny, Boiki, Bezuprechny) in the Fidonisi area to attack enemy shipping.
On July 9th put the Finnish submarines Iku-Turso (Kptlt. Pekkanen) and Vetehinen (Kptlt. Pakkala) Mine barriers east of Ekholm. Lays on July 11th Iko-Tursu East Ekholm the lock F.15 (18 mines). On the mine barriers that Vesihiisi (Kptlt. Kijanen), Iku-Turso (Kptlt. Pekkanen) and Vetehinen (Kptlt. Pakkala) in June, the following losses occur: On the first (F.3) sinks on 30.6. the Soviet submarine hunter MO-143, on the second (F.4) is on 5.7. the former Latvian steamer Rasma (3204 GRT) damaged and on the third (F.5) sinks on 6.7. the lett. Everolanda (3379 GRT) and minesweepers TShch-202 / Bui will be damaged.
The 1st S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Birnbacher) with P. 28, P. 26, S.101, S.40 and S.39 takes effect on July 10th. a Soviet bandage in the Finnish bosom near Ekholm. However, you only hit the Latvian steamer once more Rasma (3204 GRT), which then becomes a total loss.
Mine operations of the 4th S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Bätge) with S 19, S 20, S 22 and P 48 on July 9th, 11th, 17th, 20th, 22nd, 24th and 27th in the operational areas southeast and southwest of the Isle of Wight remained unsuccessful.
The German B-Dienst decrypts a radio message from the British Admiralty, which allows conclusions to be drawn about the "Ultra" deciphering due to the indication of submarine positions. The Allied knowledge, however, is attributed to British successes in radio direction finding and the "indecipherability" of the Enigma is confirmed by experts from the German intelligence service.
Air War Western Europe
During an RAF bombing raid on Cherbourg, the German supply tanker Schlettstadt damaged.
When the British auxiliary cruiser approaches Canton becomes the German motor ship Hermes (7209 GRT) northwest of St. Paul sunk by its own crew.
German Mine sweeper11 / Osnabrück runs with the mine sweeper M.23 and M 201 through Irbenstrasse, where M 201 sinks through mine hits, and through the Gulf from Riga to Pernau, where M 23 must be put on the beach after a mine hit. Both minesweepers are lifted and put back into service after repairs in 1942/43.
The German 6th Destroyer Flotilla (Kpt.z.S. Schulze-Hinrichs) with HansLody, Karl Galster, HermannSchoemann, FriedrichEckoldt and RichardPiercing meets on July 10th in Kirkenes and undertakes on July 12th. an advance on the Kola coast. A group meets with the destroyers Hans Lody, Karl Galster and Richard Beitzen at Cape Teriberka on a small Soviet convoy with the guard ship Passat (Oblt. Okunevich) and 2 trawlers. Passat and the trawler RT-67 / Molotov (558 GRT) are sunk, RT-32 / Kumzha escapes. The other two destroyers Hermann Schoemann and Friedrich Eckoldt find no goals at Iokanga.
On July 15 Soviet authorities admit the existence of defensive barriers in front of Vladivostok and Petropavlovsk, which are directed against operations of German auxiliary cruisers. The Soviet submarines M-49 (Oblt.z.S. Sibarinovski) and M-63 (Oblt.z.S. Kapitsin) go with their crews in front of Vladivostok on ds. Mine barriers lost.
Mine contamination (90 mines) by the 5th R-Flotilla (July 11, 13, 20) in the area north of Juminda.
During the nightly supply trips to Tobruk, the British destroyer Defender on 7/11 by dt. Ju 88 of the LG.1 badly damaged and sinks in the wake of the destroyer Vendetta. The sloop flamingo will be damaged. On July 15 grab 18 dt. Ju 87 northeast from Tobruk a small convoy with the landing craft LCT 10 and LCT 11 on and sink LCT 10. On July 29th sink German and Italian Ju 87 the I./StG.1 and the 239th Sq. east of Bardia from another convoy the landing craft LCT 8. — On July 12th sinks German freighter Sparta (1724 GRT) after air raids on Tripoli (raised in 1943, converted to Barrier breaker 123 intended).
Transfer of the Baltic Sea Trial Association (EVO, Kpt.z.S. Rieve) with approx. 40 vehicles (naval ferries, sieve ferries, lighters, artillery carriers, coasters and assault boats) with security from M 251, SAT 3, LAT 21, LAT 23 as R 28, R 29, R 168, R 169 and R 170 the 2nd clearing flotilla from Libau to Riga. On July 12th Cape Domesnäs is passed, unsuccessful shelling by Soviet coastal batteries on Sworbe. On July 13th Attacks by 4 Soviet G5 motor torpedo boats under Oblt. Gumanenko (TK-73, TK-17, TK-67 and TK-93), later also by and airplanes; allegedly 1 assault boat sinks (so far not detectable), SAT 3 / August and 23 small vehicles suffer splinter damage (Meister, 23).
Attack attempt by a Soviet destroyer unit (KAdm. Drozd) with the destroyers Angel,Gordy,Grozyashchy,Stoiki,Silny,Serdity,Steregushchi and the T-boats Tucha and Sneg before the mouth of the Dunes remains unsuccessful (Meister, 371). Trials of the Soviet submarine deployed in the Gulf of Riga S-102, to get a shot on the convoy failed because the water depth was too shallow.
General situation / North Sea
RAdm. Vian flies as a special representative of the British Admiralty with a Catalina-Airboat to Arkhangelsk and from there to Moscow. Talks about the stationing of British surface forces in Murmansk remain unsuccessful, as Vian speaks out against it and only supports the use of British submarines (cf. 27.7.-6.8.). - After the Admiralty had decided to station 2 submarines at the Soviet base in Polyarnoe, those withdrawn from the Bay of Biscay sailed Tigris and Trident on July 26th and 1.8. out there.
Second attack of the reinforced German 2. Geb.-Div. from the extended Liza bridgehead. The Soviet defense is made from the Liza Bay by the guard ship Smerch supported. On July 14th Lands a Soviet unit (Kpt. 1.Rg. Platonov) with 3 guard ships, 3 minesweepers and 10 U-fighters on the west bank of the Liza Bay the 325th Rifle Regt. and a marine bag. with a total of 1,600 men, counterattacked by artillery fire from the destroyer Kuibyshev, of the guard ship Groza and is supported by 4 underground hunters. Cover of the operation after sea by the destroyers Gremyashchi, Gromki and Stremitelny. Again the German attack gets stuck. On July 16 3 guard ships land another Btl. in the Liza Bay with the support of the destroyer Kuibyshevwho have favourited the guard ships Groza, Smerch, Priliv as well as 4 U-hunters. A from the naval war command on 18.7. Ordered deployment of the 6th Z-Flotilla against the Soviet support association does not take place due to a lack of air reconnaissance and security and the unpredictable mine hazard. At the same time, on the orders of the naval command U 81 and U 652 and after cancellation of the destroyer mission from 21.7. additionally U 451 and U 566 used in the Kola area.
Brit. Submarine operations (II): On July 13th sunk Taku (Lt. Nicolay) 10 nm north of Benghazi from the torpedo boat Montanari secured Italian freighter Caldea (2703 GRT), on July 14th. torpedoed Osiris (LtCdr. Euman) at Argostoli the ital. Capo d'Orso (3149 BRT), and on July 15. sink Unbeaten (Lt. Woodward) and Taku with artillery west of Tripoli or in the area of Benghazi the sailing schooner Vincenzo Padre and damage the auxiliary minesweeper A.12 Nettuno. - From July 14th to 16th there is a return with the 5 freighters Rialto, Andrea Gritti, Sebastiano Venier, Barbarigo and the German Ankara, secured by the destroyers Malocello, Fuciliere, Alpino and the T-boats Procione, Pegaso,Orsa from Tripoli to Naples. On July 15 attacks the British submarine P.33 (Lt. Whiteway-Wilkinson) at the height of Pantelleria and sunk the Barbarigo (5293 GRT). The approach and attack of the boat are based on the results of the »Ultra« reconnaissance, which for the first time was able to provide details about the movements of the convoy by deciphering the route signals. After the attack will P.33 of Orsa and Procione pursued with depth charges. - On July 20th becomes union (Lt. Galloway) attacking a convoy with the German steamer Menes southwest from Pantelleria by the Italian T-boat Circe sunk. Utmost (LtCdr. Cayley) lands on the night of July 21. a sabotage squad on the western tip of Italy to blow up railway lines and trains.
On July 24th missed Upright (Lt. Wraith) at Capo dell'Armi the floating dock GO-22 in tow. Upholder (LtCdr. Wanklyn) torpedoed eastern Sicily the Italian. Dandolo (4964 GRT). Attacks by others mostly on cover positions for Op. "Substance" (see July 21-27) of standing submarines fail. U-boats of the British 1st U-Flotilla take over transports to Malta.
Unsuccessful attack of the 1st S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Birnbacher) with P. 26, P 27, P. 28, P. 40 and P 101 on a Soviet convoy near Ekholm in the Finnish bosom. - The 3rd S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Kemnade) with S 47, S 54, S 57 and P 58 The next day undertakes forceps of pincer attacks in the Gulf of Riga against a Soviet destroyer, only 1 torpedo from P 57 (Oblt.z.S. Erdmann) detonates close to the target.
German submarine operations in the central North Atlantic.Because of the lack of sightings U 372, U 431, U 401, U 68, U 565, U 331, U 74, U 126, U 562, U 561, U 564, U 97, U 98, U 203 and U 95 contracted into a closer list. On July 17th The I./KG.40 sifts the expiring one Convoy OB.346 northwest of the north channel, via which several messages from the radio deciphering service (B service) are received. The air reconnaissance found the convoy on July 18th and 19th. again; who, however, bypasses the outpost strip with the help of "Ultra" information. On July 23 becomes a Fw 200, who has again registered the OB.346, above the convoy of one Hudson of the RAF Coastal Command shot down.
On July 18 to grab Fw 200 the I./KG.40 the brit. Pilar de Larrinaga (7046 GRT), while the machine of the group commander, Captain Fliegel, is shot down by the ship's flak. In artillery attacks on July 20 damage on 2 British single drivers U 126 (Kptlt. Bauer) the Canadian Star (8293 GRT) and U 95 (Kptlt. Schreiber) die Palma (5419 GRT).
Successes of British air mine contamination: On July 15. becomes the German minesweeper M 509 damaged by a mine hit in the Bay of Kiel, on July 20. the Norwegian freighter Brynje (3916 GRT) in the Great Belt. On July 31 goes a dan. Steamer in front of Schleimünde lost by air mine hit.
Mine sweeper11 / Osnabrück creates a blocking gap through a mine barrier newly laid by Soviet destroyers near Dünamünde with his clearance passages.
Air War Western Europe
Seven freighters are seriously damaged in a daytime raid on Rotterdam by the RAF.
The US Task Group 2.7 with the cruisers Philadelphia and Savannah and the destroyers Meredith and Gwin conducts a neutrality patrol that begins and ends in Bermuda.
The US transporter Westpoint (ex passenger ship America) runs with German and Italian consular staff on board from New York to Lisbon, after British authorities have assured an unhindered journey. After arriving on July 24th he runs back to New York with US and Chinese consular staff, where he will work on August 1st. arrives.
Against an advance of Force H from Gibraltar to the east, the Italian submarines were deployed to the north of Cape Bougaroni Alagi and Diaspro set up. - The British submarine is being tested in preparation for the planned replenishment operation "Substance" and due to the highly rated mine hazard in the Strait of Sicily Utmost (LtCdr. Cayley) a new transit route for submarines that runs below the Sicilian south coast. To Utmost embarrassed too Upholder and Urge on this stretch westwards to the cover positions for »Substance« (see July 21-27).
The Italian petrol tanker Panuco (6212 GRT) received on July 17. An air torpedo hit in the port of Tripoli made it impossible to unload about three quarters of the ship's cargo. It has to be repaired on 19.-21.7. with 6000 tons of petrol on board while the torpedo boats were secured Centauro and Montanari be transferred to Italy. The Italian tanker Gada will be on 19.7. damaged by mines off Brindisi and brought in.
8. Clearance boats of the Soviet Danube Flotilla
The Soviet Danube Flotilla clears the Kilia arm as part of the withdrawal of the Soviet XIV Rifle Corps from the Danube and breaks through the Romanian. Locked positions at Periprava. In front of the estuary, the monitors, armored cutters and clearing boats from a detachment from Odessa with the cruiser Comintern, the gunboats KrasnayaArmeniya and KrasnayaGruziya, 10 torpedo cutters, 6 guard cutters and the destroyers Bodry, Kharkov and Shaumyan recorded.
Unsuccessful advance of the 3rd S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Kemnade) against Kübassare (Ösel). Attack attempt by the Soviet destroyers Serdity and Steregushchi against a German supply convoy in front of Dünamünde remains unsuccessful; the convoy reached the mouth of the Dunes without any losses. Serdity will be on 19.7. on the march back in Moonsund by a bomb hit Ju88 of Kü.Fl.Gr.806 damaged and must after unsuccessful rescue attempts on July 22nd. abandoned and self-sunk.
German / Italian Submarine operations against Gibraltar convoys. On July 18 the departure of convoy HG.67 from Gibraltar, observed by agents, is reported. The Italian submarines Malaspina, Morosini, Torelli, Bagnolini and Barbarigo are deployed against the convoy, which bypasses the deployment. After this Torelli (KKpt. De Giacomo) the single Norwegian tanker Ida Knudsen (8913 GRT) sunk Barbarigo on 7/22 the HG.67, but soon loses touch, so that the Italian and the appended German. U93, U94, U124 and U203 not find him. Bagnolini (KKpt. Chialamberto), which already on 19.7. has briefly seen an incoming convoy, takes effect on 23.7. the OG.68 and listens to 3 detonations, which, however, do not result from hits. Barbarigo (KKpt. Murzi) sunk on July 25th the British single driver Macon (5135 GRT) and on July 26th. the British tanker Horn shell (8272 GRT).
Operation of the German submarines U81 and U652 off the Kola coast. On July 24th missed U652 the Soviet guard ship in front of the Kildin Island SKR-23 / Musson.
The British submarine Umpire (Lt. Wingfield) goes in front of the wash after engine damage due to collision with the trawler Peter Hendrik lost.
Due to "Ultra" information about an incoming blockade breaker, British submarines and the Polish submarine become Sokol concentrated in front of the Gironde estuary. On 7/19 shoots Tuna (LtCdr. Cavenagh-Mainwaring) a torpedo six-bay on the incoming tanker Ole Jacob (8306 GRT) in the escort of the minesweepers M 18, M 25, M 27 and M 30. The torpedoes fail, the detonations are heard on the German minesweepers, but not recognized as a submarine attack.
The French Passenger steamer Pasteur (29,253 GRT) arrives in Gibraltar under the protection of 5 British destroyers with the troops destined for Operation Substance.
On 7/19 sink British torpedo planes of 42nd Sq. RAF west of Sirevaag the guard boat NK 08 / gunner (ex-norw. whalers Firers). Brit. Bombers sink on July 21. in Narvik the German transporter Wandsbek (2388 GRT) and on July 24th. before Skadberg the norw route steamer Vestkyst I. (370 GRT).
9. USAAF P-40 fighter
The Italian submarines operate off the Egyptian coast Axum, Squalo and Uarsciek.
On 7/19 the US Atlantic Fleet forms the warship association TF.1 to secure Iceland and to secure the Icelandic convoys. A task group with the carrier Wasp, the cruisers Quincy and Vincennes and the destroyers O'Brien and Walke brings P-40 Fighter planes to Iceland that are launched from the sea and reach their destination without loss.
The units that are used to escort convoys to Iceland include Desron 7 (Capt. Kauffman) with the destroyers Benson, Niblack, Hilary P Jones, Plunkett, Mayo, Madison, Gleaves, Charles F Hughes and Lansdale; Desron 11 With Grayson, Roe and Sampson;Desron 30 (Capt. Cohen) with Dallas, Greer, Tarbell, Cole, Bernadou, Lea, Ellis and Upshur and Desdiv 62 With McCormick, Sturtevant, Reuben James and Bainbridge. From 6.8. operate Catalina-Flying boats the Patron 73 and Mariner-Flying boats the Patron 74 from Reykjavik resp. Hvalfjord from.
In the event of an attack by Ju87 The 12./LG.1 (Oblt. J. Pfeiffer) against Soviet ships in the Kolafjord become the guard ship Shtil(ex RT-51 / Leshch) and the destroyer Stremitelny (Kpt. 2.Rg. A.D. Vinogradov) hit and sunk.
German battleship Scharnhorst leads, under backup by the destroyer Erich Steinbrinck, Friedrich Him, Bruno Heinemann, Z 23 and Z 24 after four months in port in Brest for the first time again through combat and target practice at sea. Then will Scharnhorst at a known poorly protected and very exposed berth in La Pallice, severely damaged in an RAF bombing raid (see July 24).
On July 20th becomes the German supply tanker Caribbean Sea damaged by British planes and brought into Boulogne. On the evening of July 23 the same tanker continues its course westwards from Boulogne on the hook of 2 tugs and accompanied by 4 outpost boats. The escort is carried out by the brit. MTB 49, 51, 70 and 71 attacked, companion V 1508 / Rau III by torpedo hits from MTB 49 sunk (FMA). - On July 27th becomes the destroyer moving from western France to Germany Friedrich Him unsuccessfully attacked at Calais by 5 boats of the 11th MTB flotilla with torpedoes and on-board guns.
The Greek submarine sunk in the Aegean Sea (Dodecanese) Glavkos (LtCdr. Zepos) on July 21st near Rhodes an Italian small sailor. The brit. Tetrarch (LtCdr. Greenway) missed on July 25th. twice the steamer requisitioned by the Germans Olympos and sunk on 7/27 Another Italian small sailor near Kos.
Finn. Mine-layers lay the F.16 barrier east of the »Valkjärvi« barrier (85 mines, 15 explosive buoys).
USA / Japan
Japanese ships attempting to cross the United States-controlled Panama Canal westward will be denied passage.
Ital. Motor tanker Brarena (6996 GRT), in the company of the destroyer Fuciliere on the way from Palermo to Tripoli, will be on the 21.7. from British Blenheim-Bomber attacked, catches fire, is by Fuciliere towed and must be abandoned after a 2nd attack with air torpedo hit. - Ital. Supply escort with freighter Maddalena Odero, Nicolò Odero, Caffaro, Prussia (dt.) runs under protection by destroyer Folgore, Euro, Saetta, Fulmines, Alpino and torpedo boat Pallada from Naples to Tripoli. On 7/22 becomes 30 nm west of Pantelleria in an air raid Prussia (8203 GRT) hit and exploded (190 dead). The other ships in the convoy get through under security Alpino and Pallada Tripoli. On July 23 goes the German steamer Tirpitz (7970 GRT) lost to a mine hit off St. Remo.
10. Operation "Substance" with the Ark Royal.
Operation "Substance": Supply convoy GM.1 with troop transport Leinster and the freighters Melbourne Star, Sydney Star, City of Pretoria, Port Chalmers, Durham and Deucalion from Gibraltar to Malta. Operation secured by Force H (VAdm. Somerville) with the battle cruiser Renown, the carrier ArkRoyal, the cruiser Hermione and the destroyers Rotknor, Fearless, Foxhound, Firedrake, Foresight, Fury, Forester and Duncan. They are supported by units of the British Home-Fleet (Force X) with battleship Nelson, the light cruisers Arethusa, Edinburgh, Manchester, Mine cruiser Manxman and the destroyers Cossack, Maori, Sikh, Nestor, Lightning, Farndale, Avon Vale and Eridge. Submarine setup with 8 boats, O.21 and P.32 before Cagliari, Olympus in front of Naples, Upholder and Urge north of Sicily and Utmost, Upright and Unique on both sides of Messina Street. The British Mediterranean fleet is also operating a diversionary operation from Alexandria. When sailing out of Gibraltar, a troop transporter comes across Leinster (4302 GRT) on July 21. reason and remains behind.
22.7.: Capture of the association south of the Balearic Islands by the Italian air reconnaissance. Since only one more aircraft transfer to Malta is suspected, the Italian fleet will not expire for the time being. Italian submarines set up by the northern Cape Bougaroni Alagi and Diaspro misses the latter Renown and Nestor (RAN).
23.7.: The formation was recorded again in the morning by Italian scouts north of Bône. It is now too late for the fleet to approach. Ital. Torpedo aircraft of the type P 79 score hits on cruisers Manchesterwho can only run 9 knots and with 750 embarked soldiers on board under the protection of the Avon Vale returns to Gibraltar (repairs in Philadelphia / USA until August 1942), and on destroyers Fearless, that must be given up. During these air raids, 2 Italian bombers and 5 torpedo planes were hit by and from Fulmars the Ark Royal shot down. In the evening the Force H march back to Gibraltar without Hermione and 3 destroyers who stay with the convoy as reinforcements. Of these will Firedrake hit in another bombing raid and must be accompanied by the Eridge also reverse. The from 23.7. Italian submarines set up between Pantellaria and Malta Bandiera, Dessie, Manara and Settimo don't get a shot.
24.7.: Convoy GM.1 continues its march Edinburgh (RAdm. Syfret), Arethusa, Hermione, Manxman and 10 destroyers. The Italian speedboats take hold at Pantellaria MAS532 and MAS533 attack the convoy and torpedo the transporter Sydney Star (12,696 GRT). The destroyer Nestor takes over 487 embarked soldiers, the ship continues on its own. The association runs on the same day and then the Sydney Star in Malta. Convoy MG.1 leaves Malta with 7 ships in ballast to the west, of which tankers HöeghHood (9351 GRT) south of Sardinia receives an air torpedo hit.
25.7.: Force H picks up the returning cruisers and the empty convoy, Fulmars the Ark Royal intercept several air strikes on the empty convoy and the returning damaged ships.
27.7.: Arrival in Gibraltar.
Advance of the 3rd S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Kemnade) into the area east of Arensburg (Ösel), with the Soviet torpedo cutter TKA-71 sunk and the Latvian icebreaker Lacpecis (253 GRT) badly damaged. Since the icebreaker is loaded with torpedoes for Soviet torpedo cutters, it is towed to Romassare (Dagö island), where it sinks again in the harbor
The British cruiser Dunedin brings the vichy-franz to the east of Natal. Steam boat VilledeRouen (5383 GRT).
The 6th Z-Flotilla with KarlGalster, HermannSchoemann, FriedrichEckoldt and RichardPiercing (Hans Lody had to turn back prematurely due to machine failure) sunk the Soviet survey ship during an advance into the Arctic Ocean between Iokanga and Teriberka meridian and 1 emergency Soviet flying boat. Soviet. Air raids on July 22nd and 24th remain unsuccessful. An advance of the 6th Z-Flotilla against the Jugor and Kara Straits with 4 destroyers (as above) is canceled at Kolguev due to the capture of a British carrier formation (see next section).
11. Mine cruiser HMS Adventure.
British porters advance against Kirkenes and Petsamo.
22.-25.7.: Concentration of the company's ships in Seidisfjord (Iceland). Doing so becomes the destroyer Agates badly damaged by mine.
26.7.: The mine cruiser used for a transport to Murmansk Adventure runs with the destroyer Anthony out. Force P (RAdm. Wake-Walker) followed later with the aircraft carriers Furious and Victorious, the heavy cruisers Devonshire and Suffolk and the destroyers Echo,Eclipse,Escapade,Intrepid.
28.7.: Oiling of the destroyers from the cruisers and that of the destroyers Icarus and Inglefield secured tanker standing at a meeting point Block Ranger.
30.7.:Adventure is released and by the Soviet destroyer Sokrushitelny from Cape Gorodetsky to Arkhangelsk, where on July 31. arrives. The association is divided into 2 groups with one carrier each as a core and is covered by the German aerial reconnaissance. Of Victorious start 20 Albacore-Torpedo aircraft and 9 Fulmar-Jäger to attack the German artillery school ship lying in Kirkenes brake and other ships. 11 torpedo planes and 2 fighters were shot down by flak and aircraft of the 6./JG.5. Only minor damage on the attacked ships. Of Furious start 18 Albacore, 4 Hurricane-Hunter and 6 Fulmar to attack Petsamo. Since no ships are found in the port, the association is attacking land targets. A fighter and a torpedo plane are lost.
31.7.:Furious indicates its operational aircraft Victorious leaves and marches back due to lack of fuel. Of Victorious start on 4.8. 3 Fulmar against Tromso, an aircraft is lost in the process, then this association also marches back.
4.8.:Adventure leaves Arkhangelsk and is destroyed by the Soviets Sokrushitelny and Grozny headed up to Kanin Nos.
The Soviet destroyers Grozny,Sokrushitelny and the miner Rabbit put a defensive barrier with 275 mines at the entrance to the White Sea.
Middle Baltic Sea
When clearing mines in front of the mouth of the Dunes, the the German minesweeper M.3131 lost. On 7/27 the German freighter sinks Elblag (315 GRT) in front of Libau on the defensive barrier »Weimar« (see June 21/22).
Air War Western Europe
So far the heaviest day attack by the RAF with 149 bombers against the German battleships Gneisenau (Brest) and Scharnhorst (La Pallice). The latter receives 5 hits, which cause severe damage to the ship's electrical lines (200 km [!] Of cables have to be re-laid). Hunters and anti-aircraft guns shoot over La Pallice 10 Halifax-Bomber and mistakenly one returning from the reconnaissance flight Fw 200 from.
General location / Southeast Asia
Yep Troops begin on July 24th. with the occupation of French Indochina, naval forces occupy Camranh Bay. On July 26th President Roosevelt freezes Japanese and Chinese balances in the US and stops oil exports to Japan. In return, US balances in Japan will be frozen on July 28th. On July 29th closes Japan with the vichy-franz. Governor General Decoux signed an agreement to set up bases in southern Indochina, and Japanese troops also occupy the southern part of the country.
Submarine operations on the Gibraltar-Freetown Route. On July 24th the B-Dienst records the positions of the convoys OG.69 and SL.80 at the same time. Be on the SL.80 U 431, U 565, U 401, U 74, U 95 and U97 scheduled. On July 25th before the Western Approaches, the convoy is hit by a Fw200 reported to I./KG.40, but the submarines cannot make contact with the SL.80. The operation is canceled the following day.
On July 26th engages U141 (Oblt.z.S. Schüler) before Northern Ireland the expiring Convoy OS.1 (Fuse 5th Escort Group, Cdr. Macintyre on destroyer Walker) on, sunk the brit. Botwey (5106 GRT) and torpedoed the brit. Atlantic City (5133 GRT). It is then followed with depth charges for 20 hours. On 7/27 wins U371 (Kptlt. Driver) west of Portugal again on OS.1 contact and holds it with interruptions until 30.7. That night he succeeds in taking the brit. Shahristan (6935 GRT) and the Dutch Sitoebondo (7049 GRT) to sink. But no other submarines come close.
After reporting the Convoys upper floor 69 by the B service U79, U126, U331, U68, U561, U562, U564 (only briefly) and U203 from B.d.U. scheduled. On July 25th the OG.69 west of the Bay of Biscay is twice from Fw200 reported to I./KG.40, all boats locate the bearing signs of the sensing machine, but cannot get near. On July 26th win again twice Fw200 Contact and guide in the afternoon by directional signs U68 approach, besides the 7 German boats are now also Barbarigo and Calvi scheduled. On the night of July 27th sink U79 (Kptlt. Kaufmann) the brit. Kellwyn (1459 GRT) and U203 (Kptlt. Mützelburg) the brit. Hawkinge (2475 GRT). U561, U126 and U331 remain unsuccessful. Also on July 27th hold again 2 Fw 200 on the first floor. 69 contact. U68, U562, U126 come up, the latter (Kptlt. Bauer) can in the night of 28.7. the brit. Erato (1335 GRT) and the norw. Inga I (1304 GRT) sink. U 562 is damaged by 3 corvettes in a seven-hour depth charge pursuit and has to enter. Sunk in the morning U561 (Oblt.z.S. Bartels) the brit. Wrotham (1884 GRT). On 7/28 hold temporarily Fw 200, U68, U79, U561, U331 and U126 Contact, sunk in the evening U203 the swed. Norita (1516 GRT) and the brit. Lapland (1330 GRT). On the night of July 29th becomes the contact holder U331 pushed away from OG.69. Overall success on OG.69: Using 9 submarines, 7 merchant ships with 11,303 GRT are sunk.
12. Major Teseo Tesei
On 7/28 an agent report arrives about the departure of the HG.68 from Gibraltar. A list of the submarines U79, U126, U66, Calvi, Bagnolini and Barbarigo on July 29th / 30th against both convoys OG.69 and HG.68 remained unsuccessful.
Southeast. La Plata becomes the German steamer gain (6101 GRT) as the British cruiser approached Newcastle sunk by its crew itself.
Attack attempt by the Italian X. MAS flotilla (FKpt. Moccagatta †) against the British supply ships of convoy GM.1 that entered Malta. Covered by the frigate Diana (15 nautical miles north of Malta), the speedboats MAS 451 and MAS 452 (5sm north of Malta), and an MTSM torpedo tower boat (1sm north of Malta) 8 MTM explosive boats and 2 torpedo rider teams reach La Valetta. This leads to a number of technical problems. Nevertheless, the torpedo rider Major Tesei (†), the inventor of the »maiali«, managed to blow up the harbor barrier with 2 MTM, but the St. Elmo bridge collapsed due to the detonation and blocked the way for the other 6 explosive vessels. They are being shot down by coastal batteries. The next morning, fighter-bombers captured the expiring MAS451 and MAS452; the first-named boat is sunk, MAS 452 is damaged and captured. (Kobelt, 2016, pp. 19-25).
Attacks by the Soviet Navy Air Force and a speedboat group against the 2nd R-Flotilla deployed in Irbenstrasse. On July 25th become R.53 and R.63 Slightly damaged by mine detonations, on July 26th. sinks R.169 by bomb hits. The attacks of the torpedo cutter (TKA) remain unsuccessful. - On the night of July 26th Airplanes of the German KG.4 contaminate the western entrance of the Soelo Sound with 20 bomb mines with magnetos. Another mine deployment of the squadron on July 26th. day with 40 bomb mines in the center of Moonsund. Continuation of the mining company in August.
The Soviet freighters Kazak Poyakov (1035 GRT) and Tungus (2607 GRT) are lost on the way between Vladivostok and La Perouse Street for unknown reasons.
General situation / Allied powers
President Roosevelt puts the Western Hemisphere Defense Plan 4 (WPL-51) into effect.
Soviet landing attempt on the small island Bengtskär southwest of the Soviet base Hanko (= Hangö): On the night of 25/26 July. bring the underground hunters MO-238 and MO-312 with the support of MO-239 and MO-311 two platoons of marine infantry to Bengtskär. The weak Finnish garrison successfully defended itself in the Bengtskär lighthouse with the support of its own coastal artillery, which bombarded the island. An intervention by the Finnish gunboats Uusimaa and Hämeenmaa and the guard boat VMV-13 forces the Soviet boats to retreat, sunk shortly after the start of the day Uusimaa the soviet MO-239 when trying to evacuate Soviet troops. Under the protection of the Finnish boats, reinforcements landed for the island crew, with their help through despite a bombardment of the island MO-236 and MO-237 at noon and Soviet bombing raids on the approaching Finnish ironclad Ilmarinen the landing forces were put down in hand-to-hand combat by the early afternoon.
Advance of the 3rd S-Flotilla (Kptlt. Kemnade) into the northern Gulf of Riga. On 7/27 capture the guide boat S.55 and S.54 the Soviet destroyer Smely, he is from S.54 (Lt.z.S. Wagner) sunk.S.57 and S.58 miss 2 anchored minesweepers near Arensburg (Ösel). On 7/28 Another gang shoots an artillery battle in the port of Romassare (Dagö) and hits the wreck of the icebreaker again Lacplecis (253 GRT).
Associated escort operation to and from North Africa. Remote security for all convoys that reached their destinations on July 29th / 30th. Reach without losses by the 8th Division with the cruisers Montecuccoli and Garibaldi (on July 28th by British submarine Upholder torpedoed) and the destroyers Grenades, Bersagliere as well as (later) Fuciliere and Alpino.
An it. North Africa escort with the freighters Bainsizza, Amsterdam, Col di Lana, the German Specia and backup by the destroyers Freccia, Dardo, Strale and turbine runs from Naples to Tripoli and an escort with the troop transports Neptunia, Oceania and Marco Polo runs with backup by the destroyer Aviere, Embarrassed, Camicia Nera, Gioberti and Oriani from Taranto to Tripoli. The troop transports march on July 29-31. returned in the same composition from Tripoli to Naples.
An it. North Africa escort with the freighters Andrea Gritti, Rialto, Vettor Pisani, the German Ankara and backup by the destroyer Malocello and the torpedo boats Procione, Pegaso, Orione and Partenope runs at the same time without losses from Naples to Tripoli; in an unsuccessful British air raid on the evening of July 31st. shoots Malocello off an airplane.
A return with the freighters Ernesto, Nita, Castelverde, Nirva and Aquitania and backup by the destroyers Folgore, Saetta, Fulmines and initially Fuciliere and Alpino as well as the torpedo boat Sirtori runs from Tripoli to Naples. Runs as a single driver Francesco Barbaro with the destroyer Since Mosto in tow (cf. 9.7.) as a single driver on the same route.
Brit. Force K (RAdm. Vian) with the cruisers Nigeria and Aurora and the destroyers Punjabi and Tartare runs from Scapa Flow to Spitsbergen (arrival July 31st) to Norway. and Russian branches to investigate. On the march back, the norweg. Weather station on Bear Island evacuated and destroyed. An advance against Norway. Coast is covered prematurely by German aerial reconnaissance.
Brit. Submarine operations (III): On July 28th sunk Olympus (LtCdr. Dymott) at Cape Comino the ital. Monteponi (742 GRT) and Utmost (LtCdr. Cayley) on the Italian west coast the Italian. Frederico (1466 GRT). Upholder attacks the remote security of a connected North Africa escort operation at Marettimo and torpedoed the cruiser Garibaldi, while the Dutch O.21 (LtCdr. Van Dulm) on July 29th a merchant ship in the involved convoy »Ernesto« is missed and then pursued with depth charges. Unique (Lt. Collett) lands on the night of July 30th. a sabotage squad in front of the western tip of Calabria, which is supposed to blow up railway lines and trains. On the same night on July 30th attacks the British mine-laying submarine Cachalot the steamer in front of Benghazi Capo Orso with artillery. The securing T-boat father (Oblt.z.S. Rosica) attacks the surfaced submarine and rams it. Cachalot surrenders, but sinks soon after the handover of his 70-man crew. Of the boats used in the 2nd half of the month remained Thrasher, Ursula, Unique, Unbeaten, P.32 and the Greek Triton unsuccessful.
13. British T-class submarine blowing out
Brit. Submarine Thrasher (LtCdr. Cowell) arrives in Alexandria with 67 British and 11 Greek soldiers who had been in hiding since the end of the fighting in Crete.
Auxiliary cruiser Ship 36 / Orion (FKpt. Weyher) sinks the British freighter west of Cape Verde Chaucer (5792 GRT). Of 10 torpedoes used, 5 miss the target, the other 5 do not detonate on impact, so that the ship has to be sunk with artillery.
General situation / Allied powers
In Moscow, President Roosevelt, through his special envoy Harry Hopkins, has Stalin announce the readiness of the USA to support the Soviet Union by delivering war material.
Air War China
Japan hit Chungking in air strike. Bomber the US gunboat lying in the harbor Tutuila (see 15.6.). No personnel losses, some motor boats are damaged. The Japanese describe the incident as an "unfortunate coincidence".
The German submarine U B, the British submarine captured in April 1940 Seal, will be decommissioned in Kiel. (It sinks during a British bombing raid on Kiel on May 3rd, 1945).
The German blockade breaker who was stopped and diverted several times on his voyage from South America to France because of British ship movements natal enters the Gironde unscathed.
The red dates refer to the corresponding paragraph in the English. Edition "Chronology of the War at Sea"
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