What is loaded in an internal combustion engine

This is how hybrid works

Efficiency meets driving pleasure - hybrid technology from Toyota

Efficiency meets driving pleasure
Hybrid technology from Toyota

With our vehicles with hybrid drive, you don't just consume less fuel, but also doing something good for the environment. Compared to conventional vehicles with gasoline engines, the CO2-Emissions in a hybrid vehicle are significantly lower. In addition, the powerful electric motor ensures a powerful acceleration and an even more dynamic driving experience.

How does a hybrid drive work?

The hybrid drive is one of the alternative drives and combined two different energy sources: a conventional gasoline engine and an electric motor. With the hybrid drive, these two drives are combined in one efficient system. The hybrid drive is often referred to as a hybrid engine. This is not true, however, as a hybrid drive never consists of just one motor.

The Hybrid drive automatically switches between the two energy sources while driving. A hybrid car drives at a speed of up to around 50 km / h mostly electric. With stronger acceleration and higher speed, the Combustion engine switched on and used together with the electric motor.

The clear advantages of a hybrid drive are particularly evident in city traffic: With the help of the intelligent braking system the energy generated during braking is transferred to a generator in converted into electrical energy. This energy will then be back stored in the high-voltage battery and can be used for the rest of the journey. In a car with a conventional drive, this energy is lost completely unused in the form of heat.

Innovative hybrid technology therefore offers numerous advantages: The intelligent combination of two motors reduces both fuel consumption and emissions and thus makes mobility much more efficient. The use of an automatic start-stop system also contributes to Recuperation, i.e. the recovery of electrical energy.

Hybrid drive in three variants

Vehicles with a conventional drive only have an engine that is powered by gasoline. A hybrid vehicle, on the other hand, uses another drive. That is why every car is considered to have a second engine Hybrid vehicle designated.

However, there are several hybrid technologies that can be distinguished by the Type of energy generation distinguish:

  • Serial hybrid

    With the serial hybrid drive, only one motor works at a time - either the combustion engine or the electric motor. If the electric motor is used for the journey, the combustion engine still remains active. In this mode, it drives a generator that generates electricity and charges the battery.

  • Parallel hybrid

    With the parallel hybrid, the vehicle is driven by both motors at the same time.

  • Power split hybrid

    The power-split hybrid drive has an internal combustion engine and two electric drive systems, a motor and a generator. The advantage of this hybrid technology is that the combustion engine can work permanently at efficient speeds and is almost independent of the current energy demand of the engine. Toyota has been using this innovative technology for its vehicles with the "Hybrid Synergy Drive" hybrid drive system for over twenty years.

Hybrid variants and their properties

Hybrid drives are divided according to their electrical power. The decisive factor here is how high the proportion of electrical power, also known as hybridization, is. Hybrid cars are available from Toyota as full hybrids and plug-in hybrids. There are a total of five different hybrid variants:

  • Micro-hybrid

    Hybrid vehicles are usually characterized by the fact that electrical energy is generated in two different ways. This is different with the micro-hybrid: only energy that is generated by regenerative braking is also converted. This means that the battery cannot be charged additionally while driving.

  • Mild hybrid

    In a mild hybrid, the electric drive also supports the combustion engine. The electric drive is particularly active when starting up and over short distances, but not exclusively. With a mild hybrid, longer distances cannot be covered without a combustion engine. Compared to the micro-hybrid, significantly more energy is obtained through recuperation, which is converted into electrical energy in a generator and then stored.

  • Full hybrid

    Models with a full hybrid drive can drive purely electrically - for example in heavy city traffic. You only use the electric motor during the constant Stop & Go. However, the electric range depends on the model and personal driving style. When accelerating quickly, the electric motor is supported in an energy-efficient manner by the combustion engine. Toyota is convinced of the innovative technology and relies on the full hybrid in all models.

  • Range extender

    A vehicle with a range extender in its drive is mostly electric. If the electric range is insufficient, an internal combustion engine switches on if necessary. However, cars with this drive offer less engine power than other hybrid vehicles.

  • Plug-in hybrid

    The most noticeable difference: A plug-in hybrid can be charged externally via a power cable. The following section explains the details.

The difference between hybrid and plug-in hybrid

A plug-in hybrid is one Full hybrid variant, which offers a significantly larger capacity of the high-voltage battery. The abbreviation is often used for this hybrid technology PHEV, advertised Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle. The battery in a vehicle with a plug-in hybrid drive can be charged in two ways: on the one hand via the combustion engine, on the other hand via external charging at a charging station or socket. When charging, the vehicle is connected to the power grid with a cable with a corresponding plug, the plug.

The ability to charge the vehicle externally is the key difference to a self-charging hybrid car. In hybrid models without an external charging option, the energy storage device is only recharged via regenerative braking or the internal combustion engine. Plug-in hybrid vehicles also often have one bigger battery with more capacity.

The advantage of a plug-in hybrid is that it can be used for short distances as an e-car, without CO2-Emission and with low fuel consumption to cover. If the electric battery is empty, the journey can still be continued seamlessly with the combustion engine. This means that plug-in hybrids can also cover longer distances - without any interruption.

Innovation in every generation: the Prius Hybrid

The Prius has been a real success for over twenty years. But it's time to say goodbye. In 2020, the production of Toyota's first full hybrid in series will finally be discontinued and the decade-long pioneer and efficiency expert is going into well-deserved retirement. We look back with pride on a success story.

1st generation

In 1997 Toyota set new standards with the market launch of the first full hybrid vehicle in mass production. The Prius was born and with it Toyota's first hybrid drive. By combining a 53 kW petrol engine with a 33 kW electric motor, the first generation of the Prius only consumed 5.1 liters per 100 kilometers - a figure that revolutionized the vehicle industry.

2nd generation

In 2003 the next generation of the Prius successfully replaced its predecessor. With optimized aerodynamics, better use of space and the use of a new, space-saving hybrid battery, the second generation showed how much innovation can be in just five years.

The improved combustion engine continued to work in the reliable Atkinson cycle, named after its inventor James Atkinson, who invented the cycle in four-stroke engines in 1880. The new combustion engine now had an output of 57 kW with optimum thermal efficiency. The electric motor with 50 kW was now more powerful than a conventional combustion engine with a displacement of 1.0-1.2 liters. Thanks to the innovative technologies, fuel consumption has been reduced to just 4.3 liters per 100 kilometers.

3rd generation

The third generation of the Prius was introduced in 2009. The completely newly developed 1.8-liter gasoline engine with 73 kW output also worked according to the proven Atkinson principle and with improved thermal efficiency. In conjunction with the newly developed 60 kW electric motor, fuel consumption was reduced to just 3.9-4.0 liters per 100 kilometers.