Can diabetics eat Arvi
In response to the alarming extent of the diabetes pandemic and at the initiative of the United Nations, the WHO and the International Diabetes Federation, World Diabetes Day is celebrated annually on November 14th. The logo in the form of a blue circle reflects the unity of the world community in the fight against this disease and symbolizes life and health. Every minute seven people die from complications and complications of diabetes, and half of all patients are unaware of their diagnosis.
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a group of endocrine system disorders caused by failure to secrete the hormone insulin and characterized by high levels of glucose in the bloodstream.
Currently, diabetic diseases are divided into two main types:
- Type 1 diabetes mellitus (DM 1) is an insulin-dependent form that is characterized by an absolute or partial lack of hormone production. This disease affects 5 to 10% of the total number of all diabetics. Most children and adolescents are at risk of developing type 1 diabetes. The main trigger mechanism is considered a hereditary factor that can be triggered by any of the viral infections - hepatitis, chickenpox, mumps, rubella. The disease develops aggressively and with pronounced symptoms.
- Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM 2) is a hormonally independent form of diabetes caused by the accumulation of sugar in the blood due to a violation of the interaction of insulin with the body cells and / or a partial violation (increase) of its secretion by β- Cells of the pancreas is marked. Almost all type 2 diabetics are people over 35, of whom 90% are over 50.
SD 2 is again divided into 2 subspecies.
- the first subspecies - type 2A diabetes, or hormone-independent diabetes "fat";
- the second is type 2B diabetes, or "thin" diabetes.
About 80% of all type 2 diabetics belong to the first subtype. Recently, a special group of borderline patients was singled out from type 2 diabetes. Her disease initially follows the second type, progresses very slowly, but over time flows into type 1 diabetes, which requires active hormonal treatment. This subtype is referred to as DM 11/2 or NIDDM 1 in the international classification LADA - latent autoimmune diabetes in adults.
There are also 2 "temporary" types of diabetes - diabetes in pregnant women and diabetes in malnutrition.
Predisposition and Symptoms
Above all, there is a risk of developing diabetes 2:
- lead a passive lifestyle;
- obese and overeating;
- who are genetically predisposed to visceral fat storage (abdominal obesity) - excess fat is deposited in the upper body and abdomen and the figure becomes like an apple.
The development of type 2 diabetes is also promoted by persistent dehydration and common infectious diseases.
Additional symptoms in addition to being overweight (20% of the norm) are:
- high blood pressure;
- painful dependence on dietary carbohydrates;
- haunted bouts of overeating;
- frequent urination;
- irrepressible thirst;
- constant feeling of tiredness.
In an advanced form of type 2 diabetes, obese patients inexplicably begin to lose weight.
According to statistics, more than 80% of patients with diabetes mellitus 2 are elderly.
Diabetes mellitus fully justifies its "sweet" name. In ancient times, doctors used this factor as a diagnosis - a saucer of diabetic urine attracted wasps and bees. Modern diagnostics are based on the same determination of the sugar content:
- an empty stomach blood test shows the level of glucose in the bloodstream.
- the urinalysis gives a picture of the ketone and sugar content.
In addition, a glucose tolerance test (GTT) is carried out - 3 days before the analysis, carbon-rich products are excluded from the diet, and after 8 hours of fasting, a solution of 250 g of water + 75 g of special anhydrous glucose is drunk. Immediately before and after 2 hours, venous blood is drawn to determine the violation of carbohydrate metabolism.
Diabetes mellitus has become something of an additional factor in natural selection - the lazy dies and the disciplined and hardworking lives happily ever after. However, when treating type 2 diabetes in the elderly, doctors face not only social problems: low socioeconomic status and often living alone, but also combined chronic pathologies. In addition, elderly and senile patients are typically not included in clinical trials, and treatment regimens are developed without considering the characteristics of these age groups.
Tactics for treating type 2 diabetes should be aggressive, combined, with the aim of reducing the inadequate biological response of the body's cells to insulin and restoring the functions of the pancreatic β-cells. The therapy for type 2 diabetes is carried out according to the following scheme:
- the first stage is dietary food.
- the second stage is diet + metformin (Siofor).
- the third stage - diet + drugs with metformin + exercise therapy;
- the fourth stage - diet + exercise therapy + complex drug treatment.
Diet is the main treatment for type 2 diabetes and aims to maintain blood sugar levels of 4.6 mmol / L ± 0.6 mmol / L on a low-carbohydrate diet. At the onset of diabetes, strict adherence to the diet should help bring the glycated hemoglobin HbA1C below 5.5% as quickly as possible. The main task of patients is not to break down, learn how to compose an individual menu, not overeat and refuse to violate the principles of low-carbohydrate nutrition once and for all.
The most popular and proven anti-obesity pills are metformin-based drugs - Siofor, Glucophage, and others. Early diagnosis of diabetes mellitus 2, adherence to the principles of a low-carbohydrate diet and regular use of metformin ensure the refusal of additional drugs and hormonal injections.
In addition, Siofor perfectly lowers systolic and diastolic blood pressure, not only in diabetics. Also, pills with metformin successfully cope with the normalization of the female cycle and help restore female reproductive function.
The most popular and cheapest metformin tablets in the CIS countries. Produced by Menarini-Berlin Chemie (Germany) and analogous to Glucophage. For the elderly over 65 years of age and people who work with vigorous physical exertion, the appointment of Siofor is recommended with caution - the risk of lactic acidosis is high.
Glucophage and Glucophage® Long
- The original and first drug based on metformin (dimethyl biguanide). Its creator, the Paris pharmacologist Jean Stern, originally (1960) called his drug Glucophage in literal translation - devour glucose. The production of metformin is based on galegin, a type of French lily extract.
- Galegin extract:
- reduces the absorption of carbohydrates in the digestive tract;
- lowers glucose production in the liver;
- increases the sensitivity of peripheral tissues to insulin;
- increases the use of sugar by the body's cells.
According to statistics, metformin causes gastrointestinal side effects in 25% of diabetics:
- metal taste in the mouth;
- vomiting, intestinal colic;
Only half of the patients can cope with these diseases. Therefore the technology was developed - the GelShield diffusion system, with which the production of prolonged-release tablets could be started without side effects - Glucophage® Long. Thanks to the "special device", these capsules can be taken once a day. They ensure a slower, more even and longer absorption of metformin without the blood plasma concentration increasing suddenly.
Contraindications to taking Siofor and Glukofazh:
- kidney and liver dysfunction;
- hypoxia of the respiratory and / or cardiovascular system;
- heart attack, angina, arrhythmia;
- disorders of cerebral blood flow;
- depressive stressful states;
- postoperative time;
- severe infections and injuries;
- fols and iron deficiencies;
To improve the effect of Siofor, modern endocrinologists recommend the use of new incretin drugs:
Exercise increases insulin sensitivity, so vigorous exercise for 2-3 hours a day should become a habit. Exercise therapy for type 2 diabetics consists of strength exercises and long jogging at a slow pace. In this case, blood pressure must be closely monitored - with a persistent increase above 130/85 mm Hg. You will need to take antihypertensive drugs.
If diet and exercise have not led to the desired result after 6 months, the attending physician will additionally prescribe complex drug therapy. Such a comprehensive treatment strategy is immediately indicated for older patients.
Complete list of oral medications for type 2 diabetes
All drugs for the drug treatment of type 2 diabetes can be divided into 4 groups of pharmacological agents:
- drugs that stimulate the pancreas to produce more hormones or secretatogi derivatives of sulfamylureas and glinides (meglitinides). Currently, they are considered not only out of date, but also harmful, as they severely deplete the pancreas.
- drugs that increase insulin sensitivity - thiazolidinediones and biguanides. By far the most common pill for diabetics;
- new generation drugs - DPP-4 inhibitors, GLP-1 antagonists and alpha-glucosidase inhibitor;
- combined means - metformin + sulfamylurea.
Sulfamylurea supplements are contraindicated for:
- kidney failure;
- lactation period.
Despite their low cost and quick action, they increase the risk of hypoglycemia, rapid development of resistance, and contribute to additional weight gain.
Tablets based on meglitinides have the same contraindications and consequences, but again they are expensive. The notes do not contain any information on safety and long-term efficacy.
The group of secretators often does more harm than good and contributes to the exacerbation of the hyperglycemic condition. Commonly causes heart attacks, strokes, and glycemic coma.
Contact your treating endocrinologist. In our time, he will surely get rid of secretaries, prescribe a new generation drug and choose an available brand name of Metformin or Siofor.
The main goal of type 2 diabetics is not to stimulate insulin production, but to make cells more sensitive to it.
If you have type 2 diabetes, especially in the elderly, you should not give up insulin injections. A balanced insulin therapy not only helps to quickly balance the carbohydrate metabolism, but also gives the liver and pancreas a break at regular intervals.
Patients with type 2 diabetes during infectious diseases must receive insulin injections so that type 2 diabetes does not develop into type 1 diabetes.
Consequences of refusing treatment
High blood sugar levels can lead to serious complications:
- chronic vaginal infections in women and impotence in men;
- heart attack, stroke, glycemic coma;
- gangrene with subsequent amputation of the lower extremity;
- diabetic neuropathy;
- deep kidney failure, fatal.
If you experience symptoms of diabetes mellitus, contact a specialist immediately.
Benefits for patients with diabetes mellitus 2
The state guarantees diabetics to receive appropriate social benefits for each individual case. All diabetics can count on a monthly prescription drug from the approved list if this is critical to them.
Those who need insulin can get blood glucose meters and supplies for three tests a day cheaper. You have a privileged basis for this.
Patients who do not require insulin receive preferred test strips - one per day, and the visually impaired are guaranteed a free daily supply of glucometers and consumables for analysis.
The registration and receipt of the services takes place after submission of a certificate from the diabetes center to the responsible executive authorities.
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (non-insulin dependent) is a metabolic disease that develops due to disorders in the interaction of insulin with tissues, which are accompanied by persistence hyperglycemia... The latter is an increase in serum glucose concentration by more than 5.5 mmol / l, if this indicator is measured on an empty stomach, more than 11.1 mmol / l - after meals. In this article we will cover the following topics:
- what is type 2 diabetes mellitus?
- nutrition and treatment of the disease;
- basic drugs for treatment (pills, injections);
- can diabetes be cured?
- diet and nutrition;
- how is the disease prevented?
Type 2 diabetes is characterized by the following symptoms:
- Dry mouth sensation.
- Frequent, intense urination during the day and night.
- Muscle, general weakness, excessive tiredness.
- Long-term wound healing.
- Deterioration of eyesight.
- Numbness of the limbs, tingling in them.
Many are interested in whether they have a disability with diabetes mellitus. The decision to establish this category is made by the specialists of the Bureau of Medical and Social Expertise. To do this, they evaluate the severity of persistent disruptions in body functions caused by complications of this pathology. The latter include damage to the kidneys, eyes, nerve fibers, peripheral circulatory disorders, including those that lead to the development of gangrene, amputation of the limbs.
Gangrene is one of the complications of diabetes.
Diabetes pills can be divided into the following groups:
- Drugs that stimulate insulin secretion by the pancreas (sulfonylurea derivatives, clay).
- Agents that increase the sensitivity of tissues to insulin (biguanides, thiazolidinediones).
- New generation drugs (GGP-1 agonists, DDP-4 inhibitors, α-glucosidase inhibitors).
- Combined drugs for diabetes.
Sulfonylurea derivatives and clays
In the early stages of type 2 diabetes, insulin is produced in normal or excessive amounts against the background of tissue insulin resistance. Over time, the β cells in the islets of Langerhans in the pancreas become depleted and release fewer hormones.
With prolonged use of an active substance based on sulfonylurea, glinides lead to a deterioration in the endocrine function of the pancreas, which leads to a worsening of the course of the disease.
Hence the answer to the question "Is it possible to cure diabetes mellitus with these drugs?" Negative. Such drugs stimulate increased insulin secretion, but due to the low sensitivity of cells to the hormone, their effect is still insufficient.
One of the most unfavorable consequences of using sulfonylurea supplements is premature exhaustion and death of islets of Langerhans β cells.
List of sulfonylurea derivatives:
Representatives of the group of glinides are nateglinide, repaglinide.
These pills for diabetes reduce the level of sugar in the blood, reduce the formation of glucose in the liver, and slow down its absorption in the intestines. Against the background of taking such drugs, the sensitivity of tissues to insulin increases, the concentration of cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoproteins in the blood serum decreases, and body weight stabilizes. Biguanides do not change the secretion of insulin by the β-cells of the pancreas.
Such drugs for diabetes mellitus include Siofor, Metformin, Glukofazh, Formin Pliva, Glyformin, Bagomet. The active ingredient in all of these drugs is metformin.
Drugs are contraindicated in kidney and liver pathology, accompanied by severe dysfunction of these organs.They should not be used for respiratory diseases, heart failure, infectious diseases, chronic alcoholism, pregnancy, breastfeeding, after serious injuries or operations.
Biguanides are also contraindicated if you are on a low-calorie diet (less than a thousand kilocalories per day), dehydration, ketoacidosis (Build-up of ketone bodies in the blood, tissues causing a decrease in the pH of the body, a coma). They are not used if a person has had previous experience lactic acidosis - A pathological condition with the development of a coma, in which the lactic acid level in the blood exceeded 5 mmol / l, led to a decrease in pH.
The treatment of type 2 diabetes with thiazolidinediones promotes the stimulation of specific receptors in fat, muscle tissue and liver and increases their sensitivity to insulin. The drugs in this group include pioglitazone, pioglit, pioglar.
Treatment of type 1 diabetes mellitus with these agents is contraindicated. Drugs in this group are not used during pregnancy, breastfeeding, ketoacidotic conditions, severe circulatory failure, and exacerbation of liver disease.
Anemia may develop while taking thiazolidinediones. hypoglycemia (Lowering the serum glucose level below 3.3 mmol / l). Using these remedies increases the risk of weight gain, fractures, and leg swelling.
The drugs suppress the activity of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4), an enzyme that destroys the glucagon-like peptide of the first type (GGP-1). High concentrations of the latter increase the sensitivity of the pancreatic β-cells to glucose, which increases the release of insulin. By reducing the concentration of glucagon (a hormone that stimulates the production of glucose in the body), the agents help reduce tissue resistance to insulin.
List of DPP-4 inhibitors:
- Sitagliptin (Januvia).
- Saxagliptin (Onglisa).
- Vildagliptin (Galvus).
DPP-4 inhibitors are contraindicated in liver and kidney failure, pregnancy, lactation, and severe decompensation of diabetic manifestations.
The drug for diabetes belonging to this pharmacological group is acarbose. The drug inhibits digestion and the absorption of carbohydrates in the small intestine, thereby reducing the increase in serum sugar concentration after eating food.
Acarbose is manufactured under the trade name Glucobay.
The drug is contraindicated in inflammatory bowel diseases, accompanied by malabsorption, pathology of the digestive tract in combination with flatulence. Acarbose should not be used in kidney failure, pregnancy, breastfeeding, intestinal obstruction, ulcerative colitis, or hernias of the abdominal wall.
Against the background of treatment with Glucobay, it is important to adhere to a strict diet that limits the consumption of foods and beverages with a large amount of carbohydrates. In the opposite case, intestinal disorders often occur.
Combined Diabetes Pills
The most common drugs that contain sulfonylurea derivatives with metformin. The following trade names are issued with the following composition:
- Bagomet Plus.
- Amaryl L.
Combinations of metformin with DPP-4 inhibitors are also available. Such funds as Galvus Met, Yanumet, Kombogliz Prolong are used.
Janumet contains metformin, sitagliptin.
Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GGP-1) agonists
Representatives of this group are Byeta, Lixumia, Victoza. They are available in the form of solutions intended for subcutaneous administration using a special syringe pen.
GGP-1 is a hormone that is released in the gastrointestinal tract after ingestion. Under the influence of this substance, the pancreas produces insulin. In addition, GGP-1 leads to a decrease in appetite due to slower gastric emptying.
Byeta contains the active substance exenatide. It is recommended to inject the drug an hour before breakfast or dinner. The component of Victoza, liraglutide, works longer, so one injection per day is enough. Lixumia contains lixisenatide, which also causes a decrease in appetite, a decrease in blood sugar levels within 24 hours of a single use.
All these drugs are contraindicated in liver and kidney failure, diabetes decompensation. They should not be used by pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Insulin-containing drugs for diabetes
Typically, type 2 diabetes does not require the administration of insulin, but when it is not possible to compensate for metabolic disorders with the help of hypoglycemics, the use of such drugs is necessary.
Insulin can be prescribed temporarily before a scheduled operation during an infectious disease, pregnancy, or breastfeeding. Active substances containing hormones are indicated for severe violations of the liver, kidneys, exacerbation of chronic diseases, coma, precoma, ketoacidosis. Insulin preparations are used in case of allergies to hypoglycemic tablets or their ineffectiveness in newly diagnosed diabetes with hyperglycemia of more than 15 mmol / l on an empty stomach.
The dose of insulin is selected by the doctor after examining the person, with the results of laboratory tests being obtained. As a rule, long-acting (long-acting) insulins are first prescribed in small doses that are used in conjunction with antihyperglycemic drugs.
Insulin supplements cannot cure diabetes, but they can compensate for disturbances in carbohydrate metabolism.
If the effect of this approach is insignificant and the disease continues to progress, the doctor may recommend a full transition to insulin injections in the form of basic bolus therapy. A person has to inject medium-term long-term insulin (Lantus, Biosulin N, Biogulin N) once or twice a day. Short-acting, ultra-short-acting insulins (Aktrapid NM, Humodar R, Humalog) are used before each meal. This treatment regimen allows you to mimic the work of a healthy pancreas.
Insulin injections are performed subcutaneously with special insulin syringes and syringe pens. The latter are more convenient to use, they can be taken with you, the drug contained in them is not destroyed under the influence of environmental factors.
Syringe pen for administering insulin preparations.
Treatment of type 2 diabetes with folk remedies
Treatment of diabetes mellitus with folk remedies can only be an additional method of therapy.
Treatment of diabetes with folk remedies is carried out only after consulting an endocrinologist.
How to treat diabetes with flaxseed
The same amount of water is added to 5 tablespoons of seeds, the composition is boiled for 15 minutes. Then the broth is cooled and defended for an hour.
The composition is drunk in half a glass three times a day, the course duration is a month. Using such a folk remedy for diabetes mellitus can reduce the concentration of glucose in the blood serum and increase the body's immune defenses.
To make tea, 50 g of dried vine leaves are poured with half a liter of boiling water. The drink is boiled for 25 minutes and then filtered.
The tool is taken with half a standard glass three times a day before meals. The duration of treatment for diabetics is 20-30 days.
Drinking tea made from grape leaves lowers blood sugar levels and normalizes blood pressure.
How to cure diabetes with St. John's Wort
To make an infusion that will reduce the concentration of glucose in the blood, add a glass of boiling water to 3 tablespoons of the dried plant. The composition is placed in a closed container for 2 hours and then filtered. The tool is taken for about a third of a glass three times a day for a month and a half.
St. John's wort is also used together with other medicinal herbs. To collect 4 teaspoons of plantain, 2 teaspoons of rose hip flowers, half a teaspoon of mint, St. John's wort. The composition is poured with a liter of boiling water, which is kept in a closed container for an hour. The product should be drunk half a glass three times a day.
Such folk remedies for type 2 diabetes can lower serum glucose levels and increase immunity.
Burdock root, dandelion
The dried dandelion root is crushed, a tablespoon of the product is placed in a thermos and filled with a full glass of boiling water. After 5 hours the composition is filtered.
The remedy is taken in a tablespoon three times a day before meals. The positive course of admission is 10 to 50 days.
Dandelion stimulates the restoration of damaged cell structures in the pancreas and improves the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Prevention of complications from diabetes mellitus includes the inclusion of regular moderate physical activity. They help to lower the concentration of glucose in the blood as the need for muscle tissue and the sensitivity of the cells to insulin increase. Physical activity also leads to a decrease in body weight, improves the condition of the cardiovascular system.
It is allowed to perform exercises to strengthen muscles using light dumbbells weighing up to 2 kilograms. Weight training, weight lifting are contraindicated. You should not take part in sports competitions because of high physical, psycho-emotional stress.
The increased sugar absorption by the muscles persists for 2 days after training.
Diet correction is one of the most important components of diabetes management. The diet increases the effectiveness of drug therapy, reduces the need for drugs.
In type 1 diabetes, the carbohydrate content of the diet should be related to the dose of insulin used. The goal of the diet in type 2 diabetes is to normalize body weight, fat metabolism, and fasting serum glucose after eating.
It is necessary to completely exclude from the diet quickly digestible carbohydrates, including sweets, cakes, honey, jam and other sweets. Complex carbohydrates (flour products, cereals, pasta, potatoes) should be limited.
It is important to reduce your consumption of smoked meats, sausages and foods high in animal fat.
Many are interested in whether it is possible to cure diabetes with diet. In some cases, nutritional correction without additional measures leads to the normalization of carbohydrate metabolism, but this is possible only in the initial stages of type 2 disease.
Glycemic Index (GI) is an indicator that reflects the influence of food intake on blood sugar concentration. The GI for pure glucose is 100, the index of all other products is compared with this value depending on the absorption rate. Diet therapy is one of the most important components of diabetes management. Proper nutrition for this disease allows you to normalize carbohydrate metabolism in the body in order to compensate for metabolic disorders. Therefore, people with such endocrine pathology need to know what to eat with diabetes and what foods can be consumed.
After consuming a food with a high GI, the sugar content rises rapidly and reaches higher levels. After eating low GI foods, the concentration of glucose in the blood slowly increases and then gradually decreases.
The glycemic index of a meal depends on:
- properties of carbohydrates in the product;
- content of fiber, protein, fat;
- availability of heat treatment.
Depending on the value of this indicator, the GI of products can be low (less than 40), medium (41–70) and high (more than 70). The menu for diabetes mellitus should mainly include dishes with a low GI, with the addition of foods with an average index.
What is the bread unit (XE)
This is a conventional unit that you can use to roughly estimate the amount of carbohydrates in various foods. 1 XE contains 13 g of carbohydrates.
By counting the units of bread, you can visually determine the content of carbohydrates consumed without weighing the products, using quantitative measures such as a spoon, piece, piece or glass.
1 XE corresponds to 25 g of white bread, a glass of kefir, milk, 1 medium-sized apple, a tablespoon of buckwheat, raw oatmeal and 30 g of black bread.
To assimilate 1 XE, two units of insulin must be introduced.
By assessing the amount of XE per meal, a person with type 1 diabetes can determine how much insulin to take.
Nutritional principles for type 2 diabetes
A low-carbohydrate diet is recommended for type 2 diabetes. Quickly absorbed carbohydrates are limited or eliminated entirely. Complex carbohydrates are consumed in moderation, most should be eaten in the first half of the day.
The diet for type 2 diabetes should correspond to the calorie content of the daily energy consumption. Whenever possible, meals should be taken at the same time and there should be no significant breaks between them. You can not refuse breakfast, you should not have dinner later than two hours before bedtime. Anything that can be eaten with type 2 diabetes needs to be chewed thoroughly.
Diabetes foods shouldn't be excessively hot or cold. They consume vegetables first and then protein foods. All drinks should be consumed before meals. The recommended amount of free water per day is approximately one and a half liters.
Maintaining proper diet for type 2 diabetes requires the use of dietary cooking methods. Steam, steamed, boiled dishes are recommended.
Roasting products, breading them in flour and dough is prohibited.
Food should contain a minimum amount of salt. It is preferable to choose desserts with vegetable fats, sweets are consumed only during main meals.
What can you eat with this disease
Whole grain black bread is allowed, but you should not consume more than 300 g of this product per day. You can eat durum wheat pasta.
Low-fat rabbit meat, veal, beef, and poultry are other permitted foods. Low-fat fish species (e.g. pikeperch, cod) are also recommended. The listed products can be boiled, steamed, stewed and baked.
Many people want to know what dairy products can be consumed. Lower GI are whole milk, 2% milk, cottage cheese, kefir, other dairy products with a low fat content and 1.5% natural yoghurt.
Eggs are on the list of allowed foods, but don't use them too often. The daily allowance is a boiled chicken egg or an omelette made from it. This product is also added to other dishes during preparation.
Jerusalem artichoke for diabetes is approved for consumption due to its low GI. The tubers are baked in the oven, boiled and added to salads.
The following vegetables are consumed without restrictions: cucumbers, eggplants, beets, asparagus, tomatoes, zucchini, broccoli, green peppers. Parsley, onions, lettuce, cabbage, Brussels sprouts, beets, garlic, and green peas also have a low GI.
Of the legumes, beans are the most useful because of their rich amino acid composition. Carbohydrates in their composition are represented by sucrose, fructose.
From cereals, it is recommended to include buckwheat, oatmeal, pearl barley and corn in food. They can be boiled with milk and used as a side dish. The complex carbohydrates in these foods cause blood sugar to rise slowly without increasing dramatically. In moderation, brown rice, bulgur, is allowed as they have an average GI.
Diet for Type 2 Diabetes.
To improve the taste of food, cinnamon, turmeric, cloves, and cardamom are used in small amounts. Due to its ability to lower blood sugar levels, bay leaf is used not only as a spice but also as an infusion in type 2 diabetes. To prepare the latter, take 5 fresh leaves of the plant, put them in a thermos, pour a full glass of boiling water and insist all day. After filtering the agent, take a third of the amount received 30 minutes before meals. The period of use is up to 3 weeks.
What fruits can you eat with diabetes
The following fruits are allowed for type 2 diabetes, type 1: apples, grapefruits, lemons, pears, oranges. In a small amount, you can include in the diet kiwi, mango, papaya.
Of the berries, preference should be given to raspberries, strawberries, plums and apricots. Strawberries for type 2 diabetes and type 1 diabetes are also included in recommended foods.
The answer to the question "Is it possible to have strawberries with diabetes?" positive because this berry has a low GI.
Jams (strawberry, strawberry, plum and others) are allowed, but are only cooked without added sugar.
With diabetes, natural carrot, apple and citrus juices are included in the diet.
What not to eat with diabetes
Many are interested in a question like "What not to eat with type 2 diabetes?" All high GI foods should be eliminated to prevent excessively high blood sugar levels. This is also important for type 1 diabetes.
Bread, white flour biscuits, croutons, rusks, rice bread, waffles, shortbread biscuits and crackers have a high GI. Dishes with the addition of potatoes, corn flour, corn flakes, muesli with raisins, nuts and instant congee should be excluded from the diet.
Prohibited foods include cakes, candy, pastries, sweet cottage cheese, glazed cottage cheese, maple, corn, and wheat syrup. You shouldn't eat condensed milk, jams with added sugar, or halva.
The consumption of potatoes must be strictly limited and completely excluded in severe diabetes. Canned diabetic fruits such as grapes, bananas, figs, pineapples and apricots should not be consumed because of their high content of easily digestible carbohydrates.
Diabetics cannot eat fast food, potato chips, smoked meat, fatty, salted fish, fatty meat, sausages, and other sausages. Long shelf life foods are excluded due to the presence of hydrogenated fats in the composition. The diet should not include salty, fatty cheese, yogurt with a high percentage of fat, mayonnaise, mayonnaise sauces and hot spices.
Prohibited foods for diabetes.
Diabetes and alcohol
With mild diabetes, it is possible in exceptional cases to consume small doses of dry wine. The sugar content in the drink should not be more than 5 g per 100 ml. The maximum dose of alcohol should not exceed 250 milliliters.
Alcoholic beverages lower blood sugar levels, which can lead to the development of a hypoglycemic state. The latter is accompanied by sweating, muscle tremors, weakness, dizziness, anxiety, increased irritability, drowsiness. In severe cases, a diabetic coma develops.
Alcohol with diabetes is strongly discouraged.
Sweeteners are only used to improve the palatability of foods. They shouldn't cause a significant increase in blood sugar levels.
Honey against diabetes
For some, it is important to know if honey can be eaten with diabetes. The product contains fructose, glucose and a small amount of sucrose.
It is allowed to use natural honey, but not honey products. The latter are obtained by mixing cheap types of honey with various syrups, flavors and thickeners. It is permissible to eat up to 2 teaspoons of honey per day after a meal and slowly dissolve the product.
To prevent the destruction of nutrients, honey should not be placed in boiling water.
Insulin is not required to absorb this carbohydrate, its caloric content is almost the same as that of glucose. Fructose is 1.5 times sweeter than sugar, so it is added in a smaller amount.
The carbohydrate is released in the form of tablets, powder. The daily consumption is up to 50 g.
This sugar substitute for diabetes is obtained from the leaves of a perennial plant of the same name. The latter contains stevioside - a substance that tastes 20 times sweeter than sugar and contains no calories.
Stevia sweeteners are made in the form of concentrated syrup, powder, and liquid extracts. This sweetener is added to ready-made meals that are used in their preparation.
You cannot consume more than a tablespoon of stevioside per day.
Table 9 for diabetes
Diet 9 for diabetes includes 5-6 meals, the amount of carbohydrates consumed should be evenly distributed throughout the day.
From soups allowed cabbage soup, beetroot soup, borscht, vegetables, meat okroshka, low-fat meat, fish broths, broths with mushrooms, muesli, vegetables. Fresh vegetable salads, vinaigrette and unsalted cheese are recommended as starters. Following this diet, you can eat low-fat fish (navaga, pike, cod, pike perch) and seafood in boiled, steamed, baked form.
Meat, poultry must be dietary (rabbit, veal, chicken, turkey), they are eaten steamed and boiled.
The diabetes menu includes egg dishes, desserts made from fresh berries, fruit, jam and jam with no added sugar. Drinks, weak tea, coffee, boiling rose hips, freshly squeezed juices from vegetables and fruits are allowed.
An approximate daily set of foods for a 9 table diet for diabetes consists of:
- two hundred grams of rye bread;
- fifty grams of oatmeal or buckwheat;
- eight hundred grams of vegetables;
- three hundred grams of fruit (for example, one hundred grams of grapefruit, two hundred grams of apples);
- one hundred grams of meat, the same amount of fish;
- four hundred milliliters of milk, fermented milk products, two hundred grams of cottage cheese;
- twenty grams of sour cream, butter, thirty grams of vegetable oils.
Vegetable soup recipe for diabetics
To prepare this dish, 2 liters of weak meat broth are prepared in advance, 70 g of beans are soaked. The latter is boiled in broth for 30 minutes, then 500 g of cabbage is chopped, 200 g of potatoes are added. After that, 5 chopped tomatoes, onions, parsley, dill and salt are poured into the broth to taste.
Cottage cheese casserole recipe
Peel and core 300 g pumpkin, cut into cubes, fry lightly in sunflower oil. At the same time, semolina is cooked from 50 g of this grain.
Then mix 150 ml of milk, two eggs, pumpkin, semolina, 150 g of cottage cheese, salt, sweetener. The resulting homogeneous mass is baked in the oven.
Fish cakes recipe
Minced meat must be prepared from 200 g of pike perch. Any other lean fish can be substituted for the latter in this recipe. 50 g of white bread are soaked in milk, together with an egg add 10 g of butter to the minced meat.
All components are mixed until a homogeneous mass is obtained, from which chips are formed.
Diet for patients with diabetes mellitus is necessary to normalize metabolic processes in all tissues of the body. Frequent shared meals, consumption of low glycemic index foods, and balanced diet are the principles that people with this disease must follow on a daily basis.
Prevention of diabetes necessarily includes regular physical activity, smoking cessation, alcohol abuse, obesity control, and diet correction. It is recommended to limit the consumption of foods that are excessively high in easily digestible carbohydrates (sweets, white bread, muffins, sugary drinks).
It is important to do at least 30 minutes of physical activity a day. For example, activities like hiking, tennis, swimming, and cycling are helpful.
When a doctor makes a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus, nutrition and medication for the disease are required to slow the progression of the pathology and prevent complications from developing. As additional methods of therapy, folk remedies and physical activity are used.
Diabetes mellitus is a chronic endocrine disease characterized by insufficient insulin production. Due to the lack of this hormone in the blood, the level of glucose rises and all types of metabolism are disturbed. To treat diabetes mellitus, a complex is used drugs, including means traditional medicine.
Alternative treatment for diabetes mellitus
In 1980 I was in a diabetic coma. I passed out while eating. I went to the doctor and got tested. The doctor said I have to donate blood every week now. I was very scared that I would be hooked on insulin and decided to find out about my illness on my own. I have read many books and figured out the causes of diabetes. It turned out that food was essential.
She completely excluded meat products from her diet. I ate eggs without yolks, sat for several years on cereals (rice, millet, buckwheat) and walnuts (7-10 pieces of walnuts replace the protein of the daily norm). As a last resort, you can cook boiled fish or chicken.
Since I was overweight at the time, I began to starve to death every Saturday of the week. I had a light dinner on Friday (until 7 p.m.). On Sunday after noon she came out of hunger: she poured a handful of raisins with boiling water and drank, sifting through the cheesecloth in several layers. Then she poured boiling water again and drank after filtering. She poured hot water again, boiled for 2 minutes, drank water, and ate raisins. I lost 16 kilograms in a year. I've been doing a body cleanse every year since then and I still feel great despite my age.
And now I'm going to tell you a recipe that helped me a lot.
Take half a kilogram of celery root and six lemons and peel the roots. Twist with lemons. Put in a saucepan and simmer in a water bath for two hours. Put the resulting composition in the refrigerator. Consume a tablespoon half an hour before breakfast. Treat two years.
Source: Healthy Lifestyle Newspaper
Diabetes mellitus treatment with Krifei
The extract from the Krifeya Amur plant, a rare species of moss that grows on certain types of trees, is used as an immunomodulator, anti-inflammatory and regenerative agent.
This drug is effectively involved in carbohydrate metabolism because it stimulates the production of hormones by the pancreas and their enzymes:
The extract of Krifei Amur contains enzymes that complement the work of the body's own analogous substances. They facilitate the digestion of food elements and promote their complete assimilation in the small intestine.
In addition to these properties of the drug, which are important for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, Krifeya Amurskaya has the following properties:
Antihistamine effects, including food allergies;
Normalization of gastric acidity;
By activating the work of phagocytes - cells of the immune system that neutralize viruses and bacteria;
Regenerating effect against damage to the gastrointestinal mucosa, reducing pain in damaged tissues.
Indications for the use of Krifei Amur are a violation of the secretion of the pancreas, damage to the islets of Langerhans, which occurs in diabetes mellitus. Regular use of the drug minimizes the mutual influence of these pathologies. The drug is used in 1 tsp. before the meal. Dose for adults - 3 times a day, for children - 1-2 times. The course of treatment lasts 3 months, after a break of 30 days it can be repeated.
Where can I buy?
You can buy Krifeya by going to.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus according to the prescription of the healer L. Kim
This recipe was presented to us by the famous healer Lyudmila Kim, candidate of chemical sciences. This infusion lowers blood sugar levels significantly.
To prepare it you will need:
100 grams of lemon peel (To get this amount of lemon peel, you need 1 kilogram of lemons. That means we peel off the peel, that's what you need!)
300 grams of parsley root (if there are no roots, the leaves will be enough, but the roots will be more effective)
300 grams of peeled garlic
Garlic contains selenium, which is very beneficial for the liver. Parsley is a very good remedy for the liver, pancreas and kidneys. Lemon as a source of vitamin C.
Preparation: Cut the lemon peel from all the lemons to get about 100 grams. We peel the garlic, wash the parsley roots and pass everything through a meat grinder. Mix the resulting mixture, put it in a glass and let it steep in a dark place for 2 weeks.
How to take: Take 1 teaspoon, half an hour before meals, 3 times a day.
What do I drink with? Lyudmila Kim recommends a herbal recipe for everyone: corn silk, horsetail, cranberry leaf and bean pods. We take 1 tbsp. Collecting spoon in a glass of boiling water. When the herb is fresh it is generally infused for 1 hour. Then strain and take 1/3 cup three times a day.
Triple tincture to stimulate insulin production
The stimulation of insulin production by the pancreas is an important prerequisite for the well-being of the patient
A tincture of 3 components perfectly copes with this problem:
300 ml of vodka is poured into 50 g of mushy chopped onions. This mixture is kept in the dark for 5 days and filtered.
300 ml of vodka is poured into 50 g of crushed walnut leaves, kept in the dark for a week and filtered.
300 ml of vodka is poured into crushed grass cuffs, insisted for a week, filtered.
To get the final product, mix 150 ml of the first tincture, 60 ml of the second and 40 ml of the third. The resulting mixture is taken up in 1 tbsp. l. twice a day, 20 minutes before breakfast and at bedtime.
Treatment of diabetes mellitus with acorns
The most valuable component of acorns is tannin. This substance actively fights inflammation in the human body and strengthens the cardiovascular system. The beneficial properties of acorns are very valuable for patients with diabetes mellitus, since in order to fight the disease there is an urgent need to strengthen the body's defenses and a balanced diet in a strict diet.
Properties of acorns that are important for diabetics:
Bactericide (fight against viruses and microorganisms);
Stimulates the work of the kidneys and the digestive tract.
For use as medicine, acorns are harvested in an ecologically clean area. This is best done in dry weather from September to October. The acorns are peeled and the core is dried in a hot oven at a low temperature. After drying, they are ground to powder with a coffee grinder. You can buy acorns from the pharmacy chain. It is recommended that you consult your doctor before using this prescription.
Acorn powder is taken on an empty stomach for 1 tsp. before breakfast, lunch and before dinner.
Those who cannot use powder for treatment, rub the contents of the glans on a fine grater and take them in the same way as in the previous recipe.
Both powder and grated acorns are washed off with boiling water. The end of the course of treatment is determined by blood tests, its effectiveness has been repeatedly tested in patients with diabetes mellitus.
Brussels sprouts juice according to N.V. Walking aid
Normalization of the pancreas, stimulation of its external and intrasecretory activity occurs with regular use of juice from vegetables:
The ideal combination of these products was developed by the famous American naturopath N.V. Walker, author of the bestseller "Treatment with Raw Vegetable Juices". Over the years, he researched the health benefits of fresh vegetable juices. The combination proposed by him is successfully used to treat the pancreas, reduces the intensity of the manifestation of diabetes mellitus and chronic form pancreatitis.
Juice is prepared very simply - the ingredients are taken in equal parts and passed through a meat grinder. The therapeutic dosage is half a cup in the morning on an empty stomach. The treatment with freshly squeezed vegetable juice lasts exactly one month, if necessary it is repeated after a two-week break. Along with the intake of juice, you need to follow a low-carbohydrate diet and use cleansing enemas.
Lemon and egg for diabetes
Both lemon and eggs are essential foods for people with diabetes. Lemon lowers blood sugar levels, normalizes blood pressure, and chicken and quail eggs provide the body of diabetics with essential trace elements.
A mixture of these products is even more effective:
50 ml freshly squeezed lemon juice,
1 chicken egg or 5 quail eggs.
The medicinal mixture obtained by mixing these components is a single dose. It is taken once half an hour before meals.
Treatment lasts a month according to the following scheme:
3 days - taking the medicinal mixture;
3 days - break, etc.
Lemon juice can be replaced with Jerusalem artichoke juice with an increased acidity of the gastric juice.
Other folk remedies that lower sugar levels
To normalize blood sugar levels, there are many different recipes for traditional medicine:
Plantain seeds (15 g) are poured into an enamel bowl with a glass of water and boiled over low heat for 5 minutes. Strain the cooled broth and take 1 dessert spoon three times a day.
Burdock juice. Juice from crushed burdock root dug up in May effectively reduces sugar levels. It is taken three times a day at 15 ml each and this amount is diluted with 250 ml of cold boiled water.
Lemon peel infusion. To normalize the level of glucose, the peel of 2 lemons is poured into a thermos with 400 ml of boiling water and infused for an hour and a half to two hours. The therapeutic dose of this remedy is half a glass of lemon rind infusion 2-3 times a day.
Linden decoction. Drink linden blossom infusion instead of tea. For two glasses of boiled water, you will need two tablespoons of linden blossom. Sugar levels can drop by 40% in just four days. The broth is made like this: for 3 liters, pour two glasses of linden blossom with water and boil for ten minutes. Wait for it to cool, then put stress on it. Then you can bottle it. This mixture should be kept in the refrigerator and, if thirsty, drink half a glass. When you've drunk all of the broth, take a three-week break. And then repeat the course again.
Cinnamon. We take the usual spice that everyone has in the kitchen - cinnamon powder. Prepare an infusion based on honey and cinnamon in a ratio of 2: 1. First, fill the cinnamon powder with a glass of boiling water and let it steep for half an hour. When the mixture has cooled a little, you can add honey. It is then recommended to keep the product in a cool place for about 3 hours. Divide the resulting infusion into two parts. We drink one part before breakfast in 30 minutes and the other part - necessarily before bed. The course of treatment should not be more than 7 days.
A brew made from walnut leaves. To prepare the broth you need to pour 1 tbsp. l. Be sure to dry young leaves with 500 ml of boiled water and chop them well. Then the mixture should be boiled over low heat for about 15 minutes, after which it should be infused for 40 minutes. After sieving, half a glass of walnut leaves can be boiled at least three times a day.
A brew made from walnut dividers. Take 40 and remove the partitions from them. These partitions need to be poured with a glass of boiling water, and then simmer in a water bath for about an hour. After cooling, it is recommended to filter the resulting mixture. The infusion should be drunk about half an hour before each meal. The optimal dosage is 1-2 tsp.
Education: Diploma of the Russian State Medical University named after NI Pirogov with a degree in general medicine (2004). Stayed at the Moscow State University of Medicine and Dentistry, Diploma in Endocrinology (2006).
Diabetes mellitus is a group of diseases of the endocrine system that develop due to a lack or absence of insulin (hormone) in the body, as a result of which the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood increases significantly (hyperglycemia). It manifests as a feeling of thirst, an increase in the amount of urine excreted, increased appetite, weakness, dizziness, slow wound healing, etc. The disease is chronic, often progressive.
Timely diagnosis gives the patient the opportunity to delay the onset of serious complications. However, it is not always possible to spot the first signs of diabetes. The reason for this is the lack of basic knowledge about this disease in humans and the small number of patients seeking medical help.
What is Diabetes Mellitus?
Diabetes mellitus is an endocrine system disorder caused by an absolute or relative lack of insulin, a hormone found in the pancreas, in the body, causing hyperglycemia (persistent increase in blood sugar).
The meaning of the word "diabetes" from the Greek language is "expiration". Hence, the term "diabetes mellitus" means "to lose sugar". In this case, the main symptom of the disease appears - the excretion of sugar in the urine.
In the world about 10% of the population suffer from diabetes mellitus. But if we take into account the latent forms of the disease, then this figure can be 3-4 times higher. It is caused by chronic insulin deficiency and is associated with disorders of the carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism.
At least 25% of people with diabetes are unaware of their condition. They go about their jobs calmly, not paying attention to the symptoms, while diabetes gradually destroys their body.
High blood sugar can lead to dysfunction of almost all organs and even death. The higher the blood sugar level, the more obvious the result of its action, expressed in:
- glycation (saccharification) of cells;
- intoxication of the body with damage to the nervous system;
- damage to blood vessels;
- the development of minor diseases affecting the brain, heart, liver, lungs and organs
- Gastrointestinal tract, muscles, skin, eyes;
- manifestations of fainting, coma;
- fatal outcome.
Causes of occurrence
There are many causes of diabetes mellitus that result from a general dysfunction of the body's endocrine system, due either to a lack of insulin, a hormone produced by the pancreas, or the inability of the liver and body tissues to produce the right volume of glucose to process and absorb.
Due to a lack of this hormone in the body, the concentration of glucose levels in the blood increases steadily, which leads to metabolic disorders, as insulin performs an important role in controlling the processing of glucose in all cells and tissues of the body.
One of the reasons is inherited disposition. If a person has a family with diabetes, there is some risk that they will develop the disease too, especially if they lead the wrong lifestyle. The reasons for developing diabetes mellitus, even in those who are not predisposed to it, can be:
- unhealthy diet and abuse of sweets;
- stress and various psycho-emotional loads; has suffered a serious illness;
- liver disorder; Change of lifestyle;
- hard work etc.
Many people think that diabetes occurs in those with a sweet tooth. This is more of a myth, but there is also a truth, if only because excessive consumption makes overweight appear sweet and later obesity, which can be the trigger for type 2 diabetes.
Risk factors that contribute to the development of this disease in children are in some ways similar to the factors mentioned above, but there are some specifics here. Let's single out the main factors:
- the birth of a child to parents with diabetes mellitus (if either or both of them have the disease);
- frequent occurrence of viral diseases in a child;
- the presence of certain metabolic disorders (obesity, etc.);
- weight of the child at birth from 4.5 kg;
- decreased immunity.
Important: The older a person gets, the higher the chance of the disease in question. According to statistics, the chances of developing diabetes mellitus double every 10 years.
Due to the fact that diabetes mellitus has many different causes, signs, complications, and, of course, the type of treatment, experts have come up with a fairly comprehensive formula for classifying this disease. Take into account the types, types, and degrees of diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes mellitus
Type 1 diabetes, which is associated with an absolute deficiency in the hormone insulin, is usually acute and abrupt and quickly turns into a state of ketoacidosis, which can lead to a ketoacidotic coma. It manifests itself most often in young people: usually most of these patients are under thirty years of age. This form of the disease affects approximately 10-15% of the total number of patients with diabetes.
It is almost impossible to completely cure type 1 diabetes, although there are cases when the functions of the pancreas are restored. However, this is only possible under special conditions and with natural raw vegetables.
To maintain the body, insulin must be injected into the body with a syringe. Since insulin is destroyed in the gastrointestinal tract, it is not possible to take insulin in the form of tablets. Insulin is given with food.
Type 2 diabetes
However, the second type, formerly known as non-insulin dependent, is not accurate because as this type progresses, insulin replacement therapy may be required. In this type of illness, insulin levels initially remain normal or even exceed normal.
However, the body cells, especially adipocytes (fat cells), become insensitive, which leads to an increase in blood sugar levels.
This distinction helps to quickly understand what happens to the patient at different stages of the disease:
- Grade 1 (easy) ... Diabetes mellitus 1 degree is in an early stage, ie the glucose level does not exceed 6.0 mol / liter. The patient has absolutely no complications with diabetes mellitus, he is compensated with the help of diet and special drugs.
- Grade 2 (medium) ... Grade 2 diabetes is more dangerous and severe as the glucose level rises above normal. In addition, the normal function of the organs is disturbed, more precisely: kidneys, eyes, heart, blood and nerve tissue. The blood sugar level also reaches over 7.0 mol / liter.
- Grade 3 (severe) ... The disease is in a more acute stage so it will be difficult to cure with medication and insulin. Sugar and glucose exceed 10-14 mol / liter, which means that blood flow deteriorates and blood rings can collapse, leading to blood and heart diseases.
- 4 degrees. The most severe course of diabetes mellitus is characterized by a high level of glucose - up to 25 mmol / l, both glucose and protein are excreted in the urine, the condition is not corrected by any medication. With this degree of disease under consideration, kidney failure, gangrene of the lower extremities and diabetic ulcers are often diagnosed.
The first signs of diabetes
The first signs of diabetes are usually associated with high blood sugar levels. Usually this indicator in capillary blood on an empty stomach does not exceed 5.5 mM / l and during the day does not exceed 7.8 mM / l. If the average daily sugar content is more than 9-13 mM / l, the patient may experience the first symptoms.
After showing some signs, it is easy to identify diabetes mellitus early on. Often times, a slight change in condition that anyone can notice indicates the development of the first or second type of this disease.
- Excessive and frequent urination (about every hour)
- Itching of the skin and genitals.
- Extreme thirst or an increased need to drink plenty of fluids.
- Dry mouth.
- Poor wound healing.
- First a lot of weight, then a decrease due to a violation of the absorption of food, especially carbohydrates.
If signs of diabetes are found, the doctor rules out other diseases with similar symptoms (insipidus, nephrogenic, hyperparathyroidism, and others). Next, an examination will be done to determine the cause of diabetes and its type. In some typical cases this task is not difficult and sometimes additional testing is required.
Symptoms of diabetes
The severity of symptoms depends entirely on the following parameters: the degree of decrease in insulin secretion, the duration of the disease, the individual characteristics of the patient's body.
There is a complex of symptoms that are common to both types of diabetes. The severity of the signs depends on the degree of decrease in insulin secretion, the duration of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient:
- Constant thirst and frequent urination. The more the patient drinks, the more he wants;
- With increasing appetite, weight is lost quickly;
- A "white veil" appears in front of the eyes because the blood supply to the retina is disturbed;
- Disorders of sexual activity and decreased potency are common signs of diabetes mellitus;
- Common colds (ARVI, ARI) occur in patients due to a decrease in the functions of the immune system. Against this background, there is a slow healing of wounds, dizziness and heaviness in the legs;
- Constant cramps in the calf muscles are the result of a lack of energy while the muscles are working.
|Type 1 diabetes mellitus||Patients with type I diabetes may complain of the following symptoms: |
|Type 2 diabetes||Type II diabetes is characterized by: general symptoms: |
How is diabetes mellitus manifested in women?
- A sharp decrease in body weight - a sign that should be alarming, if the diet is not followed, the same appetite remains. Weight loss occurs due to a lack of insulin, which is required to deliver glucose to fat cells.
- Thirst. Diabetic ketoacidosis causes uncontrollable thirst. Even if you drink a large amount of fluids, your mouth will remain dry.
- Fatigue. A feeling of physical exhaustion that in some cases has no apparent cause.
- Increased appetite (polyphagia). A special behavior in which the body does not become full even after eating enough. Polyphagia is the main symptom of a glucose metabolism disorder in diabetes mellitus.
- Violation of metabolic processes in a woman's body leads to a violation of the body's microflora. The first signs of the development of metabolic disorders are vaginal infections, which are practically not cured.
- Non-healing wounds turn into ulcers - the characteristic first signs of diabetes in girls and women
- Osteoporosis is associated with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, as the lack of this hormone directly affects the formation of bone tissue.
Signs of diabetes in men
The main signs that diabetes is developing in men are as follows:
- the appearance of general weakness and a significant decrease in performance;
- the appearance of itching on the skin, especially this applies to the skin in the genital area;
- sexual dysfunction, progression of inflammatory processes and the development of impotence;
- the appearance of a feeling of thirst, dryness in the mouth and a constant feeling of hunger;
- the appearance on the skin of ulcerative formations that do not heal for a long time;
- frequent need to urinate;
- caries and baldness.
Diabetes itself does not pose a threat to human life. Its complications and their consequences are dangerous. It is impossible not to mention some of them, which are either common or pose an imminent threat to the patient's life.
First of all, the most acute forms of complications should be noted. Such complications pose the greatest danger to the life of any diabetic as they can lead to death.
Acute complications mean:
- hyperosmolar coma;
- lactic acid coma.
Acute complications of diabetes mellitus are identical in children and adults.
Chronic complications include the following:
- encephalopathy in diabetic form;
- skin lesions in the form of follicles and structural changes directly in the epidermis;
- diabetic foot or hand syndrome;
Prevention of complications
Preventive measures include:
- weight control - if the patient feels they are gaining extra pounds, then it is necessary to contact a nutritionist and seek advice on how to create a rational menu.
- constant physical activity - how intense it should be, the attending physician will tell;
- constant monitoring of blood pressure levels.
Prevention of complications With diabetes mellitus, constant treatment and careful monitoring of blood sugar levels is possible.
Diabetes mellitus gradually manifests itself in a person, so doctors distinguish three periods of its development.
- People who are prone to illness because of certain risk factors have what is known as a prediabetes period.
- If glucose is already assimilated with an impairment but no signs of the disease have appeared, the patient is diagnosed with a period of latent diabetes mellitus.
- The third period is the direct development of the disease.
If diabetes mellitus is suspected, this diagnosis must either be confirmed or refuted. There are a number of laboratory and instrumental methods for doing this. These include:
- Determination of blood sugar levels. The normal value is 3.3–5.5 mmol / l.
- Urine glucose. Usually, sugar is not detected in the urine.
- A blood test for glycated hemoglobin levels. The norm is 4–6%.
- IRI (immunoreactive insulin). The normal value is 86-180 nmol / l. With type I diabetes - reduced, with type II diabetes - normal or increased.
- Urinalysis - used to diagnose kidney damage.
- Skin capillaroscopy, Doppler ultrasound - for diagnosing vascular damage.
- Examination of the eye day - to diagnose retinal lesions.
What sugar indicators are considered the norm?
- 3.3 - 5.5 mmol / l is the blood sugar norm, regardless of your age.
- 5.5 - 6 mmol / l are prediabetes, impaired glucose tolerance.
- 6. 5 mmol / l and more is already diabetes mellitus.
To confirm the diagnosis of diabetes mellitus, repeated measurements of blood sugar levels are required at different times of the day. Measurements are best taken in a medical laboratory setting and should not be trusted with self-monitoring devices as they have significant measurement errors.
Please note: In order to rule out false positive results, not only the blood sugar level must be measured, but also a glucose tolerance test (blood sample with sugar load) must be carried out.
The standards are given in the table (measured value - mmol / l):
|Evaluation of results||capillary blood||deoxygenated blood|
|Fasting blood sugar test|
|After taking glucose (after 2 hours) or after eating|
|On an empty stomach|
|After glucose or after meals|
|On an empty stomach|
|After glucose or after meals|
All patients with diabetes mellitus must be consulted by the following specialists:
- Surgeon (vascular or specialist doctor - pediatrician);
How is diabetes mellitus treated in adults?
Doctors will prescribe comprehensive treatment for diabetes mellitus to help maintain normal blood sugar levels. In this case, it is important to take into account that neither hyperglycemia, that is, an increase in the level of sugar, nor hypoglycemia, that is, its decrease, should be allowed.
Before starting treatment, it is necessary to make an accurate diagnosis of the body, because a positive prognosis of recovery depends on it.
Diabetes treatment focuses on:
- lowering blood sugar levels;
- normalization of metabolism;
- prevention of the development of complications in diabetes.
Insulin drugs for the treatment of diabetes mellitus are divided into 4 categories depending on the duration of action:
- Ultra-short acting (onset of action - after 15 minutes, duration of action - 3-4 hours): Insulin LizPro, insulin aspart.
- Fast effect (onset of action - after 30 minutes - 1 hour; duration of action 6–8 hours).
- Average duration of action (onset of action - after 1–2.5 hours, duration of action 14–20 hours).
- Long-term effect (onset of action - after 4 hours; duration of action up to 28 hours).
Insulin prescribing schedules are strictly individual and are selected for each patient by a diabetologist or endocrinologist.
The key to effective diabetes management is careful monitoring of blood sugar levels. However, it is impossible to conduct laboratory tests several times a day. Portable blood glucose meters help you, they're compact, easy to take with you and check your blood glucose levels when needed.
Makes it easy to review the user interface in Russian, markings before and after meals. The devices are extremely easy to use, but differ in the accuracy of the measurements. You can keep your diabetes under control with a handheld blood glucose meter
The basic principles of diet therapy include:
- strictly individual selection of daily calories, complete exclusion of easily digestible carbohydrates;
- strictly calculated content of physiological amounts of fats, proteins, vitamins and carbohydrates;
- fractionated meals with evenly distributed carbohydrates and calories.
In the diet used for diabetes mellitus, the ratio of carbohydrates, fats and proteins should be as close as possible to the physiological one:
- 50-60% of the total calories should be carbohydrates,
- 25 - 30% for fats,
- 15-20% for proteins.
In addition, the diet should contain at least 4 - 4.5 g of carbohydrates, 1 - 1.5 g of protein and 0.75 - 1.5 g of fat per kilogram of body weight in a daily dose.
The diet for the treatment of diabetes mellitus (Table No. 9) is aimed at normalizing carbohydrate metabolism and preventing disorders of lipid metabolism.
Regular exercise will help lower your blood sugar levels. In addition, exercise can help you lose weight.
There is no need to jog or go to the gym every day. It is enough to be moderately active for at least 30 minutes three times a week. Daily walks will be very helpful. Even if you work on your garden several days a week, this has a positive effect on your well-being.
Before using folk methods with diabetes mellitus, this is possible only after consulting an endocrinologist, because there are contraindications.
- Lemon and eggs. Squeeze the juice from 1 lemon and mix well with 1 raw egg. Drink the resulting product 60 minutes before meals for 3 days.
- Burdock juice. Juice from crushed burdock root dug up in May effectively reduces sugar levels. It is taken three times a day at 15 ml each and this amount is diluted with 250 ml of cold boiled water.
- With diabetes mellitus, simmer the partitions of ripe walnuts (40 g) in 0.5 liters of boiling water over low heat for 1 hour. Take 15 ml 3 times a day.
- Plantain seeds (15 g) are poured into an enamel bowl with a glass of water and boiled over low heat for 5 minutes. The cooled broth is filtered and taken 1 tablespoon three times a day.
- Baked onions. You can normalize sugar, especially in the initial stages of the disease, with the help of eating a baked onion every day in the morning on an empty stomach. The result can be followed after 1-1.5 months.
- Millet against infection. For infection and for the prevention of diabetes, you can use the following recipe: take 1 handful of millet, rinse it, pour 1 liter of boiling water, insist overnight and drink during the day. Repeat the process for 3 days.
- Lilac buds. The infusion of lilac buds helps normalize blood sugar levels. At the end of April, the buds are harvested at the source stage, dried, stored in a jar or paper bag and used all year round. Daily infusion rate: 2 tbsp. Spoons of dry raw materials pour 0.4 liters of boiling water, insist 5-6 hours, filter, divide the resulting liquid by 4 times and drink before meals.
- Helps lower blood sugar and bay leaves ... You need to take 8 pieces of bay leaves and pour 250 grams of "cool" boiling water over them. The infusion should be kept in a thermos for about a day. The infusion is taken warm every time you need to strain the infusion from a thermos. Take 1/4 cup twenty minutes before meals.
The lifestyle of a person with diabetes mellitus
The basic rules that a patient with diabetes should adhere to:
- Eat high fiber foods. These are oats, legumes, vegetables, and fruits.
- Reduce your cholesterol intake.
- Use a sweetener instead of sugar.
- Eat often, but in small amounts. The patient's body can cope better with a small dose of food because less insulin is required.
- Examine your feet several times a day to make sure there is no damage. Wash them with soap and water every day and wipe them dry.
- If you are overweight, weight loss is the first priority in treating diabetes.
- Take care of your teeth to avoid infection.
- Avoid stress.
- Get regular blood tests.
- Do not buy drugs without a prescription
Patients diagnosed with diabetes mellitus are registered with an endocrinologist. With the organization of the right lifestyle, nutrition and treatment, the patient can feel satisfactory for many years. Sharpen the prognosis for diabetes mellitus and shorten the life expectancy of patients with acute and chronic complications.
To prevent the development of diabetes mellitus, the following preventive measures are needed:
- healthy eating: control of nutrition, adherence to the diet - avoidance of sugar and fatty foods reduces the risk of developing diabetes by 10-15%;
- physical activity: normalize blood pressure, immunity and reduce weight;
- control of sugar content;
- reduce stress.
If you have characteristic signs of diabetes mellitus, be sure to make an appointment with an endocrinologist, because early-stage treatment is the most effective. Take care of yourself and your health!
Treatment of type 2 diabetes without drugs has recently become a topical area of medicine as the number of patients with this type of disease continues to increase while modern medicine lacks 100 percent effective treatments.
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