Obesity can cause hungry people to suffer

am Puls Biologie 7 RG, textbook

51 Illnesses and health promotion 3.1 Our lifestyle influences our health Example: Diet and obesity Wouldn't that be an alternative to French fries, schnitzel and chicken nuggets, a really crunchy salad with fresh vegetables (k Fig. 1)? Too many children and adolescents prefer high-fat and sweet dishes, which often taste particularly good thanks to flavor enhancers such as sodium glutamate (eg chips). Now there is nothing to be said against eating meat, french fries, ice cream or chocolate every now and then. But as with so many things, the motto here is: Everything in moderation. Because what you eat has a huge impact on your health. In Austria, every fifth child under the age of six is ​​overweight - proper nutrition starts with baby food, for example avoiding sweetened porridges. Among children and adolescents between five and 19 years of age, the proportion of severely overweight boys in Austria was 11.3% in 2016, and that of severely overweight girls was 6.1%. In 2014 it was around 15% for adults. Severely overweight or obese (obese) are those whose body mass index (BMI) exceeds 30. Between 25 and 30 one speaks of being overweight. The BMI is calculated from the body mass (in kg) divided by the square of the body height (in m). However, the BMI does not take into account individual differences such as high muscle mass. In the case of children and adolescents, there is no strict classification into overweight, normal or underweight, as the values ​​can be distorted due to growth processes. Obesity (obesity) is often caused by a diet that is excessively high in fat and sugar and a lack of exercise - and is therefore considered a disease of civilization. Fig.1: Fresh salad tastes good and is healthy. But there are many other causes: Some people suffer from a genetic defect that prevents them from developing a feeling of satiety. Others only become calmer in stressful situations when they eat. Some people have metabolic disorders due to sleep problems and then feel hungry all the time. For still others, stress leads to a rise in insulin levels; fat loss is too low even with exercise. Obesity is a serious illness because it often leads to orthopedic problems such as bow-leg or knock knees or deformation of the spine, diabetes type II, high blood pressure or other secondary diseases (k Fig. 2 ). In addition, overweight people often suffer from exclusion in kindergartens, schools or companies. This can increase the urge to eat out of frustration or shame. Obesity: improper diet, too little exercise, genetic predisposition Fig.2: Consequences of being overweight. Neurological / psychiatric secondary disorders • Headache, visual disturbances • Depression cardiovascular system • Fat metabolism disorders, increased cholesterol level • High blood pressure, blood clotting disorders, tendency to thrombosis • Chronic inflammation of the vascular walls, hormonal system • Type 2 diabetes • Premature puberty • Ovarian cysts Kidneys • Increasing renal insufficiency due to Diabetes musculoskeletal system • splayfeet, arched feet, knock knees, bowlegs • slipping of the head of the thigh, gastrointestinal tract • gallstones • fatty liver lungs and respiratory tract • nocturnal respiratory disorder • asthma psychosocial consequences • low self-esteem For testing purposes only - property of the publisher public transport

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