What are the advantages of primary batteries
Lithium battery is the generic term for non-rechargeable (primary batteries) and rechargeable (secondary batteries) batteries in which lithium is used as the active material in the negative electrode.
Due to the standard potential of around -3.05 V (the most negative of all elements) and the resulting high cell voltage, as well as the high theoretical capacity of 3.86 Ah / g, lithium is an "ideal" negative electrode material for batteries. However, the high reactivity of elemental lithium (for example with water or even with moist air) is not without problems in practical implementation. Therefore, only non-aqueous, aprotic electrolyte solutions or solid electrolytes are used in lithium batteries. To increase the conductivity, anhydrous electrolyte salts (such as lithium perchlorate LiClO4) added. The development of lithium batteries began in the 1960s.
Advantages of lithium batteries
Advantages of lithium batteries compared to conventional systems with aqueous electrolytes (for example alkali-manganese batteries or zinc-carbon batteries) are the higher energy density (Wh / l) or the higher specific energy (Wh / kg), the high cell voltage, the very long shelf life due to the low self-discharge and the wide temperature range for storage and operation.
Types and areas of application
Lithium batteries come in many different types, which differ in terms of cathode, electrolyte and separator. These are available in various designs and sizes and cover a wide range of applications.
- Lithium thionyl chloride battery L.i − S.OC.l2: Open circuit voltage 3.7 volts. Typical load voltage 3.4 volts. Applications are the network-independent supply of electronics in the military and industrial sector, in security technology and for consumption meters.
- Lithium manganese dioxide battery L.i − M.nO2: Open circuit voltage 3.5 to 3.0 volts. Typical load voltage 2.9 volts. This type is widespread and is mainly used for cameras, clocks and as a backup battery for memory chips.
- Lithium sulfur dioxide battery L.i − S.O2: Open circuit voltage 3.0 volts. Typical load voltage 2.7 volts. Mostly used in the military sector.
- Lithium carbon monofluoride battery L.i − (C.F.n): Open circuit voltage 3.2-3.0 volts. Typical load voltage 3.1-2.5 volts. Lithium-carbon monofluoride batteries have a slightly higher current carrying capacity and capacity than lithium-manganese dioxide batteries, but are more expensive. They are therefore used for applications where performance is more important than cost, for example in the medical field.
- Lithium iodine battery L.i − I.2: Open circuit voltage 2.8 V. Typical load voltage 2.795 V. Use for the power supply of cardiac pacemakers.
- Lithium iron sulfide batteryL.i − F.eS.2: Open circuit voltage 1.8 volts. Typical load voltage 1.5 volts. Application in the photo sector.
- Lithium-air battery L.i − O2: Open circuit voltage 3.4 V.
- Lucien F. Trueb, Paul Rüetschi: Batteries and accumulators - mobile energy sources for today and tomorrow. Springer, Berlin 1998 ISBN 3-540-62997-1
- David Linden, Thomas B. Reddy (Eds.): Handbook of Batteries. 3. Edition. McGraw-Hill, New York 2002 ISBN 0-071-35978-8
- Wiebke Dirks, Hendrik Vennemann: Lithium batteries. CHEMKON 12 (1), pp. 7-14 (2005), WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH, ISSN 0944-5846
- Günter Eichinger, Günter Semrau: Lithium batteries I - Chemical basics. Chemistry in our time 24 (1), pp. 32-36 (1990), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, ISSN 0009-2851
- Günter Eichinger, Günter Semrau: Lithium batteries II - discharge reactions and complete cells. Chemistry in our time 24 (2), pp. 90-96 (1990), Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, ISSN 0009-2851
- Andreas Jossen, Wolfgang Weydanz: Use modern accumulators correctly, Printyourbook 2006, ISBN 9783939359111
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