# What is Oleg Yefimenko's theory of everything

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Translation by A. K. T. Assis, "Gravitation and Cogravitation", Annales de la Fondation Louis de Broglie, Volume 32, pp. 117-120 (2007). Translation from English (2013): Dr. Manfred Pohl Mail: [email protected] Web: www.unipohl.de GRAVITATION UND COGRAVITATION Book review Gravitation and Cogravitation: Developing Newton's Theory of Gravitation to Its Physical and Mathematical Conclusion (Gravitation and Cogravitation: Development of Newton's theory of gravitation up to its physical and mathematical Conclusions), Oleg D. Jefimenko, 367 pages, Elektret Scientific Company, Star City, 2006. Hardcover. ISBN: 0917406-00-1. Price: $ 22.00. The author of this book, Oleg D. Jefimenko, is Professor Emeritus of the Institute of Physics at West Virginia University. During his scientific life he wrote many articles and books dealing with the basics of gravity and electromagnetism. For many years he worked experimentally and theoretically with electret, on the electric field outside of resistance wires carrying direct current and on electrostatic motors. He has written a very interesting book on the subject [1]. The subject of this book is an extension of Newton's law of gravity. In particular, the author describes the gravitational interaction in terms of fields. In addition, he not only interprets the gravitational field, which goes back to the reciprocal square of the distance, but also a new field that he calls "cogravitational field". This new field would only be generated by moving masses and would only act on moving masses. It would be generated analogously to the magnetic field that is created by the movement of charge sources and acts on other movable test charges. In addition, it only works with retarded fields. This means that the fields that occur at one point at a certain point in time would be generated at another point at an earlier or delayed point in time. The fields would spread in space with a finite speed. He says that & szlig; this speed of propagation of the gravitational fields is not yet known, but he believes that it is equal to the speed of light. Jefimenko cites a work by Oliver Heaviside from 1893, who was the first to propose such a new gravitational field [2]. These hypotheses lead to a greater complexity of the force calculations to be carried out, because now some additional conditions arise that are dependent on the speeds, accelerations and rotations of the interacting bodies. The focus of the book is to provide detailed calculations of these new components in a variety of situations (linear mass motion, rotating spherical surfaces, etc.). The author claims that & szlig; his generalized theory of gravity is compatible with the special theory of relativity. On the other hand, it does not apply with regard to the general theory of relativity, as the numerical values of some gravitational effects indicate, which are different in both models. Comparisons of these theories are given throughout the book. On page 24 the author gives the important comment that & szlig; the cogravitative field has not actually been observed, but he expects that & szlig; it is detected by the Gravity Probe B, which was launched by NASA in 2004. What this book presents is a whole series of calculations of possible new effects that may one day be observed in space or demonstrated in the laboratory. In that sense, it is a valuable book with rich material for reflection. We would like to discuss some aspects here. The author explains on page 12 that "A cogravitational field is a region of space in which a mass experiences a cogravitational force." When Maxwell defined the electromagnetic field, he used similar words, [3, vol. 1, paragraph 44, p . 47]: "The electric field is that part of space in the vicinity of electrically charged bodies, which are considered with reference to electrical phenomena." But then we can ask: How can a region of space be located in Expand space? That has no 1 sense. If the field is not a region of space, what definition should we use? Based on whose authority? Jefimenko at least is aware of this difficulty, although still far from a clear solution. On page 25 he mentioned: “Although we say that & rsquo; If the gravitational and cogravitive fields are spreading, it is not entirely clear which physical entity is actually spreading, since gravitational and cogravitative fields are by definition regions of space. It is conceivable that & szlig; what actually propagates are some particles that somehow create the gravitational and cogravitational fields. ”Let us consider the usual electromagnetic fields that are generated in an antenna. Ordinary people consider what creates these fields are vibrating charges on the antenna. But these charges do not propagate in space at the speed of light. So the question remains, what is a reasonable and clear definition of a field? Further problems arise with Maxwell, Jefimenko and everyone else who work with the field concept that is described by a vector. How can a region of space have size and direction? How can an abstract entity, such as a part of space, affect a material body? These difficulties are rarely discussed. However, the introduction of complicated mathematics does not solve them. On page 12, Jefimenko says: `` Quantitatively, a cogravitational field is defined in terms of the field vector by the equation F mt v K , where FK is the force exerted by the field on a cogravitational test mass inclined, which moves with the velocity v. ”This is analogous to the magnetic component of the Lorentz force law, namely F qE qv B . As happens with most textbooks on electromagnetism, Jefimenko did not describe the meaning of the velocity v that appears in his law of force. Is it the speed of the test particle versus something else? It is important to clarify this question before starting the calculations, as any speed is not an intrinsic property of a body. It's always the speed of the body relative to something else. As we discussed elsewhere, there have been many different opinions about this velocity over the years, see accordingly [4, Appendix A: The origins and meanings of magnetic force] and [5, Section 7.2.5: Velocity in Lorentz -Force]. In 1881, J. J. Thomson theoretically got half of the magnetic expression of the formula for the electromagnetic force and designated v as the “current speed” of the charge. On page 248 of his work he said: “It must be. be noticed that & szlig; what we have called the actual speed of the particle for convenience is actually the speed of the particle relative to the medium through which it moves "(...)" the medium whose magnetic permeability is ". In 1889, Heaviside corrected the factor 1/2 in Thomson's work, but still accepts the same explanation for this speed, as stated in the title of his lecture: “On the electromagnetic effects due to the movement of electricity through a dielectric. ”In 1895, Lorentz theoretically arrived at this force, but used a different interpretation for the speed. Now he regards it as the speed of the test body relative to the ether, a very special medium that he always understands in a state of relative calm to the fixed stars. In his work from 1905, in which he founded the special theory of relativity, Einstein changed the interpretation of this speed again. He viewed it as the speed of the test body relative to a frame of reference or to an observer. All of this has created a lot of confusion and misunderstanding in physics. Also published as a special calculation of the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, Jefimenko presents a law of force that contains a speed-dependent term and says (page 333): "where v is the speed of the body". Once again we have to ask, the speed of Mercury relative to what? Unfortunately, we haven't found an answer to this crucial question in the book. As Jefimenko's law of force depends on the speed and acceleration of the body, this predicts that in certain situations a body can appear like an apparently negative mass (pages 224, 327). In his model, antigravitative bodies can exist in the universe, even if they have not yet been determined with certainty. These are interesting possibilities that should be explored further. Despite the problems or limitations outlined above, this is a very important starting point that should interest all scientists studying the fundamentals of physics. In addition to the theoretical calculations, he presents some possible astrophysical applications, such as the differential rotation of the sun (page 250). In Chapter 17 he also discusses two classic tests 2 of the general theory of relativity, the curvature of light under the action of a gravitational field and the gravitational shift of spectral lines, but now viewed from the perspective of his new theory. Chapter 20 is devoted to a calculation of the residual precession of Mercury and a comparison between Jefimenko's model and the generalized theory of gravity. There are notes and remarks at the end of each chapter. The book ends with an appendix on vector identities and other discussions of the dimensions of gravitational and cogravitive sets. We recommend this approach to all physicists and students who want to open their attitude to new possibilities in physics. Literature [1] O. D. Je ﬁ menko. Electrostatic Motors: Their History, Types, and Principles of Operation. Electret Science, Star City, 1973. [2] O. Heaviside. A gravitational and electromagnetic analogy. The Electrician, 31: 281-282 and 359, 1893. Reproduced in O.D. Je ﬁ menko, Causality, Electromagnetic Induction and Gravitation, 2nd ed., (Electret Scienti ﬁ c, Star City, 2000), pp. 189-202. [3] J.C. Maxwell. A Treatise on Electricity and Magnetism. Dover, New York, 1954. [4] A.K.T. Assis. Weber’s electrodynamics. Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 1994. ISBN: 07923-3137-0. [5] A.K.T. Assis. Relational Mechanics. Apeiron, Montreal, 1999. ISBN: 0-9683689-2-1. AKT Assis Instituto de F & iacute; sica 'Gleb Wataghin' Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Unicarnp 13085-859 Campinas, S & atilde; o Paulo, Brasil Email: [email protected] Homepage: http://www.ifi.unicamp.br/~assis 3

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