How can we avoid genetic diabetes
Diabetes mellitus: How to prevent secondary diseases
The diagnosis of diabetes comes as a shock to many patients. What does the disease mean for everyday life? How can you avoid long-term damage? In this article you will find out how you can prevent secondary diseases and what will help you if your diabetes has already caused damage.
The German Diabetes Health Report recorded more than 6 million diabetics in Germany in 2017. The number of patients is rising steadily not only in this country, but also in emerging countries such as India and China. Experts see one as the cause increasingly high-sugar and high-calorie diets.
We explain to you what diabetes mellitus is all about and how you can cope with the disease in everyday life.
What is diabetes Difference between type 1 and type 2
With diabetes - too Diabetes mellitus or Diabetes called - it is a metabolic disease that results in permanently high blood sugar (hyperglycaemia).
In healthy people, the fasting blood sugar value is between 65 and 100 milligrams per deciliter (mg / dl) after eight hours without food. If the fasting blood sugar value is above 126 mg / dl, it is probably a diabetes disease.
Diabetes mellitus is usually divided into its two main forms: Type 1 and Type 2. In addition, there is the rarer type 3 as well as gestational diabetes and nowadays also the diagnosis of childhood diabetes.
Although there are different causes for the various forms of diabetes, they all have one thing in common: The patient's blood sugar level is abnormally high.
Type 1 diabetes
Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the form of diabetes in which the insulin-producing cells are permanently destroyed by the body's own immune system. You can then no longer sufficiently or even at all stop producing insulin. However, the hormone insulin plays a crucial role in the metabolism of sugar. Patients with type 1 diabetes will therefore have to supply themselves with insulin from now on.
Compared to type 2 diabetes (next section), type 1 occurs less often. In fact, only five percent of type 1 diabetes patients are affected. However, the number of those affected has been increasing for years. No cause for this has yet been found.
Type 2 diabetes
The majority of all diabetics belong to type 2 diabetes, an estimated 95 percent of all sufferers. Colloquially, this disease is also "Age sugar”, Although nowadays it is no longer just a problem for older people.
In type 2 diabetes, the body still produces insulin, but the body cells are too insensitive to it - they are called insulin resistant designated. The effectiveness of the insulin is therefore limited.
Many overweight people nowadays suffer from type 2 diabetes even at a young age. The cause is Increased demand for insulin due to being overweight and the beneficiaries Insulin resistance.
The pancreas does produce insulin, but the body's cells become less and less sensitive. The metabolic syndrome, in which several metabolic diseases occur at the same time, can also lead to insulin resistance and, as a result, type 2 diabetes.
One consequence of untreated diabetes can be that the pancreas is exhausted from the high stress at some point and its insulin production stops completely.
Type 3 diabetes
There are other forms of diabetes mellitus that cannot be clearly assigned to type 1 or type 2. They are grouped under type 3 diabetes. This is due to different causes, including damage to the pancreas (pancreatic diabetes), genetic changes, hormonal causes or a previous viral infection.
Diagnosing diabetes: how to keep sugar in check
For people with diabetes, it is possible - and even necessary! -, by a healthy and balanced diet as regular exercise to positively influence their blood sugar levels. In type 1 diabetes, however, it is unavoidable to use permanent insulin therapy.
Insulin therapy for diabetes mellitus by syringe or pump
In order to keep their sugar levels stable, type 1 diabetics are dependent on insulin therapy, the so-called intensified conventional insulin therapy (ICT). Most patients inject the insulin into the subcutaneous fat tissue with a pen: once or twice a day Long-term insulin as well as a fast-acting insulin with meals or for short-term correction of blood sugar levels. At the beginning of the treatment you will be taught the procedure in a diabetes training course.
Alternatively there is also the possibility of one Insulin pumpwhich is worn on the body. The small device automatically releases insulin into the subcutaneous fatty tissue, with the patient only having to change the catheter every two days.
In the case of type 2 diabetes, insulin is only prescribed when the tablets are no longer sufficient and the Insulin resistance of the body cells already advanced is.
There are different therapy methods: Either a long-term insulin is injected only once a day or a fast-acting insulin is always injected with meals. However, even in the case of a type 2 diabetic, the treatment can be increased to an intensified conventional insulin therapy if the need for insulin is correspondingly high.
Diet in diabetes: pay attention to blood sugar levels!
Eating a healthy and balanced diet can also help keep your blood sugar levels within a normal range. Although a type 1 diabetic is permanently dependent on insulin therapy, the following generally applies to all forms of diabetes: Diet has an enormous influence on blood sugar levels and the course of the disease.
Type 2 diabetics in particular can influence their disease so much with a healthy lifestyle that the diabetes hardly has any impact on daily life.
I recommend one varied, balanced and predominantly plant-based diet. Besides a lot fruit and vegetables For diabetics, foods that consist of long-chain carbohydrates are particularly suitable. These do not cause the blood sugar to rise too quickly or too much, but rather supply the body with energy over a longer period of time.
These foods include, for example:
- Whole grain cereals,
It is not advisable to completely avoid carbohydrates as a diabetic. The lack of glucose (important for the brain) is often compensated by an excessive intake of fat, which in turn promotes diabetes.
The important thing is the proportion of Calculate carbohydrates from food and to be able to adjust the insulin dose accordingly. With a little practice, you can calculate your food yourself in everyday life.
Exercise for diabetes
Exercise and regular exercise stimulate your metabolism and fat burning. Both have a positive effect on blood sugar, which is why you should as possible Exercise for at least half an hour every other day should.
Movement can also be integrated into everyday life: Simply take the stairs instead of the elevator; take a walk during your lunch break; get off one stop earlier and walk the rest of the way.
In both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, regular exercise leads to improved insulin absorption by the body's cells. The blood sugar levels can be better regulated and the basic oneThe need for insulin decreases.
Diabetes and its consequences: what damage can the disease cause?
Unfortunately, an untreated or poorly treated diabetes can Long-term damage do in the body. In addition to an increased Risk of heart attack and stroke, the nerve cells in the body and the retina of the eyes can be permanently damaged by excessively high blood sugar levels.
At Nerve damage the feeling of pain diminishes. As a result, diabetes patients can put the wrong weight on their feet because there is no feedback from the nerves when they walk. Pressure sores and calluses may go unnoticed and can quickly develop into large sores or ulcers. This is why it makes sense to use insoles for shoes, as they take the strain off you when walking and are gentle on your feet.
This development is favored by that the immune system can be additionally impaired in diabetes. Wounds do not heal properly and sometimes spread to the bones. In the worst case, only an amputation can save the patient from further spreading of the infection.
So it's not just for diabetics important to control your blood sugar levels and to keep this as healthy as possible between 90 and 120 mg / dl. A regular checking of the feet is also advisable. You can easily do this yourself at home with a hand mirror and check your feet for small wounds or cracks. In addition, the reaction of the nerve cells should be checked once a year, for example by a Podiatrists.
What to do in the event of complications from diabetes An orthosis can help
If complications develop despite treatment for diabetes, a targeted therapy prevent worse. Chronic wounds on the feet can be caused by a effective relief for the legs, one Improve blood circulation and a structured wound treatment be resolved. This is still possible even with wounds that have existed for years.
The prerequisite is good cooperation between the treating specialists, including diabetologists, vascular surgeons and infectious agents. Orthopedic shoemakers and podiatrists also play an important role in the treatment of a diabetic foot and its manifestations such as the Charcot foot.
So can a Orthosis help to relieve the damaged leg. It encloses the body part - in this case the foot or the lower leg - and supports it with bandages and splints. The orthosis thus contributes to Pain relief at and facilitates the mobility.
It also stabilizes the leg and corrects possible incorrect loadsso that movements can be carried out safely. In the medical supply store you will find further advice on the subject of orthoses and help with possible consequential damage caused by diabetes.
Conclusion on diabetes and possible consequential damage
Diabetes mellitus is a disease that has become more and more widespread in recent years. The Metabolic disease has a pathologically increased blood sugar result. A distinction is made between different forms of diabetes, the best known type 1 and type 2.
Type 1 diabetes definitely has to go with one Insulin therapy because the body is no longer producing its own insulin. In the case of type 2 disease, tablets and a healthy lifestyle can improve the cells' insulin sensitivity to such an extent that additional insulin no longer needs to be injected.
Possible Consequences of diabetesFor example, nerve damage and, as a result, a diabetic foot, can be treated with targeted measures. This also includes deposits and Orthoticsas they are offered in the medical supply store. Here you will also find further information on the prevention and treatment of secondary diseases.
Do you have any questions about the treatment of diabetic foot? Would you like more information about the orthosis? Comment here!
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