Why is it considered virtuous to be poor?

German dictionary by Jacob Grimm and Wilhelm Grimm (¹DWB)

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mhd. virtuous. the alternation of t, d and dt corresponds to that of virtue, see there under origin and form. - the context and the chronological sequence of the meanings is determined by the basic word, virtue; there is more detailed evidence. The relatively small evidence of the derivations has the consequence that some meanings are only by chance indistinctly discernible and seem to be developed differently in the case of the virtuous, -lich, -sam, which are on the whole synonymous; the basic word must always be compared to the individual.
powerful, vigorous, gifted with extraordinary strength and ability. said of god, the angels and divine or religious realities (virtue I A, B, D):
the young ûz süezem munde said:
'virtuous got mîn unmade
given your high strength,
that I shall live so long for a long time
Wolfram v. Eschenbach-Willhalm 49, 16;
dirre strît müez in the acquisition
vors heidens hant a die.
daz turn, virtuous grail:
Condwîr âmûrs din borrows according to:
hie stêt iur both servants
in the greatest nôt die ie won
one heats the fiery angels, and the other heats the loving angels, and the other heats the virtuous angels Berthold v. Regensburg 1.95, 5 pounds; from all ... causes we found ... that his (Christ's) lere and new law was also founded, ... religious, virtuous and all divine things according to Berthold v. Chiemseeteutsche theol. 70 r .; from it corresponds between beden (divine) persons ain third, which is neither father nor sun, namely ain arbitrary, verainte, immoderate love, which is also divine, great, ... virtuous ... is ibid 57th - besides of natural things, in for whom divine or supernatural, extraordinary power is thought to be effective, see ↗ virtue, ↗IF:
the sapfler, he's virtuous
and if you had such praiseworthy strength,
swâ si an sînem lîbe stât,
Si say, if he presents the sapphire,
diu blater diu zebreste cooked
Knitting class ged. 11, 183 Hahn;
the (contemplative life) is the most virtuous,
which can give in this cyt
a minnectly sweet life
Konrad v. Helmsdorf mirror 2000 L .;
I like the (summer) of a young man,
the host as the force of the crût
and swind in all things
Albrecht v. Halberstadt 35, 222 B .;
I smell the stone,
so forsaken in sin force doesn’t!
he is never so virtuous
I root in all sine strength,
swen ir im sin reht contradicts
mhd. narratives 157 127 Rosenhagen;
the third stone is so virtuous:
god be your junk woman
L. Uhland folk songs (1881) 1, 13.
hardly occupied by humans; Probably not just coincidentally, since the corresponding use of virtue (IC) in German (see, on the other hand, the ags.) is poorly developed and takes a back seat to the meanings associated with Christian ideas: one should also benign the child's neck and sleeves Grains and red corals, they strengthen the child and make it happy and virtuous J. Ruoffhebammenbuch (1580) 64.
excellent, excellent, efficient; corresponding virtue II.
in the mhd. especially in the special courtly expression 'noble, disciplined, knightly', as befits the knight or the lady (virtue II A), whereby the basic meaning, the one who is' excellent, capable ',' like him should be 'is always shining through.
in general, without emphasizing particular features:
For my servant I bid you:
nû nim iz tuginthafter man.
by genâde quam i gevaren here.
dû salt dîne êre on me
'I ask you, virtuous man,
sît ir me sît been good
for me to do full well,
because I also recognize:
smell i call me
Hartmann v. AueErec 4817 H:
alda (at brand) behind (rival) remain,
a jar with ime distribute
and from im becoming virtuous
and learn niuwan knighthood
Gottfried v. Straszburg Tristan 457 R .;
sæligiu, now think about it,
and nemet in iuwer sense,
Because I'm so innocent
diu what heat Hildeburc. vrou Hilde, Hagenen wîp,
diu hete brought up after êren ir virtuous lîp
shown in (the knight) a knighthood,
the madman would be virtuous
rode there with a good will
and would have liked to quarrel
to praise ûf higher minne should
Konrad v. Wurzburgd. world wage 32 Schr.
Nestor the same thing called
and hiez Pîlon sîn hêrschaft.
he what küen unde virtuoso
ders., troj. war 11528;
the kunic Rudolf wacked something
virtuous what he and know
Ottokarösterr. rhyming. 25989;
he was des libes wol form,
then he was also the muotes,
humble and virtuous
and know about knighthood
Johann v. Würzburg Wilhelm v. Austrian 547 R .;
and came to a landlord in Salzpurg, called Praun,
the het ain so virtuous beautiful woman,
cheerfully with eren, politely ir moods
Oswald v. Selva 100, 3 Sch.
with emphasis on individual features, especially milte, triuwe and court decency (zuht), see in detail under virtue II A 2 and 3:
she said: owî hêrre Diederîch,
weme wiltû, tuginthaftir man,
Môrolf, you dignified man,
do not relax for a long time,
kum help the kunige Salmân
Salman and Morolf 492, 3 Vogt;
daz you, virtuous man,
such a heartbeat hasn’t done,
dû makes me want to live lân
Hartmann v. AueErec 961 H .;
a, sir, he's so virtuous
see, the niuwe championship,
when we came nu sin ze hove
We even took them from ime
Gottfried v. Straszburg Tristan 3287;
gracious, happy love! I want
add your sake vil:
know against me nû virtuous
Walther v. d. Vogelweide 55, 20 Kr .;
under the virtuous crowd
Host v. GravenbergWigalois 9322 K .;
diu virtuous künegîn (Helena, who wants to be loyal to her husband)
were escorted to trûren dô.
si twanc wîplichiu blûcheit
dar ûf, daz si beswærde truoc
Konrad v. Wurzburgtroj. war 21490:
Konrad v. Würzburgherzmœre 242 letters;
you have seen that
never künic alsô virtuous.
knighthood and poor knighthood
he gave advice with riche
ders. tournament v. Nantes 21 scripts;
Rudolf v. EmsWillehalm 7021;
an ieslich knight likes to sol
praise diu vil be wîp;
and in virtue is the lîp,
so he praises when he can best,
and is ir stæter dienestman
Ulrich v. Lichtensteinfraudienst 1357, 8 B .;
and let ûf the championship.
the entpfienc even virtuous
master Anne von Nieflant
livland. rhyming. 4354 M .;
he was brave and virtuous,
the lant he hett with right force
Heinrich v. NeustadtApollonius 20549 S.
also transferred to god, who is seen in the manner of a worldly lord (different from under 1 and 3 a); see under virtuously (B 1 b) the same application in poetry (Konrad v. Würzburg): eya, dear god and a lord of the world, until milt and virtuously towards me poor people, when I have to take into account you have, I don't like that. H. Seusedtsche schr. 84, 17 B .; I wander, got weri milt, I wander, he weri a gracious, virtuous lord to all those who are fooled around in serenity. 127, 13.
often in connection with virtuous muot, 'noble, chivalrous sense':
they were happy to offer them from the Hiunen lant:
si gruoztes minneclîche by ir virtuous muot
d. Nibelunge not 1393, 3 L.
(cf. hs. B: through ir virtues muot 1453, 3; C: she gruozte si with virtues, wan si was wolgemuot 1481, 3);
(Keiî to Erec, who has defeated him and leads him away from the rosz :)
through the virtuous muot,
daz me daz ros hie bestê!
awakens and you hear sîn '
Hartmann v. AueErec 4739 H .;
'No.' said he, 'knight good,
through your virtuous muot
unde through dîn schœne wîp
wan sô i in the world ie mê
guoter wîbe mac spied,
as I can see the idea
sô kumt et from ir güete daz,
daz sî me ie baz unde baz
of debts wil gevallen:
wan so adorns si ûz in all
ders. 1. booklet 1499 B .;
because they don't both starve
stay, from the grôzen nôt
helped in a heathen vrowe gût
she had to be virtuous
livland. rhyming. 782 M .;
three servants and a knight gût,
he had to be virtuous
zû gote and no den lûten
often as a formulaic epithet, even in the early morning. continued; initially for knights and women as 'laudabilis, honestus' (Jac. Grimmkl. schr. 7, 208); since late mhd. also transferred to other outstanding people (e.g. biblical history):
Hartmann v. AueErec 7242 H .;
saeligiu, now think about it,
Because I'm so innocent
Gottfried v. Straszburg Tristan 14805 R .;
the speech and dirre message
the rîche keizer virtuous
vil schône sider gave suggestions
Konrad v. Würzburg New Year's Eve 2568 Gr .;
he quam riding in ir lant
and with so strong herescraft
daz diu frouwe is virtuous
Buy with no customer
ders., Schwanritter 22 Schr .;
the des rîches krône truoc
Ottokarösterr. rhyming. 33497;
brûder Willekîn what he called.
the same virtuous one helt
livland. rhyming. 9735 M .;
'tell me, more virtuous man
are you creep or persan?
Ulrich v. EschenbachAlexander 16741;
ir same vice tett ir we,
but hett si laides me anyway
rename virtuous man,
den si vil laides wiste han
WernherMarienleben 245 p .;
Joseph, the virtuous man
who, as we do the writing, knows
Konrad v. Helmsdorf mirror 470 L .;
from Wolkenstein I want to go to Cologne in a good mood
and came to a landlord in Salzpurg, called Praun,
the het ain so virtuous beautiful woman
cheerfully with eren, politely ir moods
Oswald v. Wolkenstein 100, 3 treasure;
do the virtuous man rait
on the mountains uf and nider
Johann v. Würzburg Wilhelm v. Austrian 3528 R .;
huͦb ... and spoke thus (to Seuse): owe, virtuous lord, I complain ú, that it happened to me as very bad H. Seusedtsche schr. 79, 13 B .; you virtuous knight Siegfried volksbuch v. go. Siegfried 71 ndr .;
Guisgardum I Erwelet han
virtuoso and chaste to dadel
Hans Sachs 2, 32 lit. ver .;
a handsome young man ... virtuous, chaste with everything geperde Steinhöweldecameron 68, 11; the merciful, also virtuous frawen Margareta Heynin ... a happy fasznacht Schumannnachtbüchlein 73 Bolte; Probus ... which in the youth is pretty rich and virtuoso S. Munstercosmogr. (1550) 250; Does the following also belong here ?: himself din king compt dir, the bold, sitting on a donkey (cf. Matth. 21, 5, Joh. 12, 15; Zach. 9, 9) the text of the passion and lid of Christ ( 1593) a 5ᵇ.
In connection with the previous one, the virtuous writer who appears in the poem of the Wartburg War as one of the controversial writers is to be mentioned.Jac. Grimm (smaller writings 7, 207 f.) Sees in the designation that cannot be explained from the poem itself (unless the second passage below is to be interpreted: 'if you can really do something, ask God for his strength today ') a common title,' as it was due to a notary who was in office '. He interprets virtuously simply as 'laudabilis, honestus' without referring to 'particular excellence'. From the years 1345, 1346 he mentions an Andrê the proficient writer named in documents in the Upper Bavarian town of Rain:
I am a virtuous writer
minnesinger 3, 171ᵃ v. d. Hagen;
my writer, sit ir virtuous
so please got still his high power
virtuous writer, you sent us a message
gotes mueter; nu thank you, sistu wise
with reference to it in more recent language: Klingsohr von Ungerland in the middle and to the left and right of him Heinrich v. Ofterdingen, Walther von der Vogelweide ..., the virtuous writer G. Kellerges. w. (1889) 6, 86. - the same poet from the Wartburg War is also called a good writer: the aforementioned lantgrave Herman had born six first wolves at court in sinem pallacio, that is to say, sprechins and tichtins uff championship wol ervarn warn ande steadily aries each other tichtin uff hubischeit. the one that was called Heinrich, the good writer of the life of St. Ludwig 9, 15 Rückert. Johann v. Würzburg mentions in his Wilhelm v. Austria one of the employers who are appointed to protect Aglyens, the virtuous writer; After Wilhelm's death he wrote a lament for him:
also blaib there (at Aglye), whom one should praise
billich, he deserves that
the prince (Wilhelm) waited with hertzen swær
from the virtuous writer
It should be noted that John calls himself the poet of virtue schribær (Johannes, der virtue schribær haizz I 13228), with the clear meaning 'teacher of virtue', who with his poem wants to provide an example to virtue-loving hearts (see the introduction to his Wilhelm v. Öst.). whether he wants to have the master named in the poem, who also appears as a poet (eulogist of the virtue of Wilhelm), interpreted in this way cannot be said with certainty.
generally 'excellent, capable, useful'. on the whole not clearly developed, since in the nhd. this usage passes over into the moral-religious meaning, if this is more generally grasped, 'who does what is right and orderly is excellent, capable, as he should be':
so write to us differently
Hugo v. Trimbergrenner 13960;
near this wise addict in (god) here in front of several virtuous heathen masters, and the sensible Aristotile H. Seusedt. schr. 171, 11 B .;
I can drink and mac
I have art and strength
my heart is so virtuous,
daz ez to drink never gone
therefore one also meets so many useless and inept people among soldiers; But even such people will not turn right afterwards, and virtuous and intelligent people advance and make their fortune Flemingd. fully t. soldier (1726) 124ᵃ; they ... give cause ... to virtuous manhood H. W. Kirchhofmilitaris disciplina (1602) 5; cf. also: 'virtuously agile, skillful, useful, not stupid; a virtuous woman folk a dexterous woman's room, which has a lot of engaging, is useful in the economy '' K. G. Anton Oberlausitzer words (1825) 5, 8. of animals, plants and so on, 'excellent, useful, good' (see ↗tugend II D):
I have now found one, (horse)
In terms of things, never yours
mhd. narratives 186, 97 R .;
so the chatze is virtuous
the cinnamon you want to wibe
the same flower tugenhaped (the rice from Jesse)
hett on im siben aygen creates
Konrad v. Helmsdorfspiegel 143 L .;
what virtue you have, dear wîn.
how might you be more virtuous?
you have beautiful and great goodness,
dû you make küene the hesitant
then one says that such flowers are also supposed to be picked together, which are very harmful to people; but byne, who is artful and also highly skilled, does not do this, she only takes the good Schumannnachtbüchlein 173 Bolte; occasionally still today: it is a well-advised piece, healthy in all limbs, virtuous babble Boszhart through pain upwards (1913) 128.
virtuous in the religious-moral sense.
said of god as the originator of all virtue (see ↗ virtue III A); seldom, as at all, expressions of this kind about god, according to the nature of god, are avoided:
got in the heart ûf stêt,
daz with the virtues,
wand he is the same virtuous,
in im never gained in virtue of strength
Lamprecht v. Regensburg daughter Syon 3866 W
similar to Mary the mother of god:
nature also has the best of ir
with sunderbar the highest gir,
with beauty to the child
WernherMarienleben 447 p .;
the virtues all put ir craft
to her (Maria). she was so dug-like
and have been so gracious vol a vaz
because the holy spirit possesses them
Heinrich v. Neustadtgottes future 1272 p.
from people; in different levels of value, 'morally perfect', 'pious', 'good', 'chaste'; 'good', 'honest'. on the historical background, see ↗tugend III.
ahd. and mhd.
the moral meaning has developed under the influence of christianity since the ahd., see ↗tugend III B 1 and 2a: nec sine poena umquam esse vitia, nec sine premio virtutes. bonìs felicia, malis semper infortunata contingere: noh achustige beings ane wewun, noh tough ane iro lon. unde io guoten salda, ubelen unsalda follow Notker 1, 228, 21 P .; I nihabo rehte bihaltin ... niheina rehtwerchûnga, noh nihein tuginhaft leban, noh nihein gotis gibot Bamberger confess to Steinmeyerkl. ahd. denkm. 147, 39; daz sint the virtuous ones, the ire magituͦm an ire wellent against aueren (repeat) with the subsequent formatione chûskes lebennes unde gaistlicher zuhte St. Trudperter high song 100, 2 M .;
he got nam daz criuze to sîn ...
and helped the noble god here
argue against paganism.
the knight was virtuous
he schuof daz counting hours,
dô in the lîb died
daz in the diu sêle there genaz
Konrad v. Wurzburgd. world wage 254 Schr .;
and what he (Schyron) is so virtuous,
because he feels bad and good
ders. troj. war 5970 basement;
If you want to be virtuoso, the vlîze, that he is on all steady, on all quotes, on all treads ...ze rehte think how he gotuo daz best, that he got the lesson mac David v. Augsburg in: dt. Mystiker 1, 310, 11 Pf .; Whoever opposes the (7 deadly sins), he is virtuous and he has the wish and the joy and the will and the êre, the same is Berthold v. Regensburg 1, 96, 38 pounds;
dehein one is virtuous,
he has strength.
he is a virtuous man,
the state of quality can be
Thomasin v. Zirclariad. welsche gast 4349;
wan he heats not virtuously, who works tugentlîchiu, mêr: who heats virtuously, who does good, works master Eckhart 611, 36 Pf .;
the cheusche and raine are ir body
Heinrich v. Burgeisd. soul council 433 R .;
the two are so virtuous,
daz si daz dunked missetan
daz you are bi in scolding lan,
and lazent not scold anyone
mhd. narratives 193, 84 Rosenhagen;
ir (the virtues) deheine enmac gesîn
with we created virtuously,
si ensî under ir (the charity) championship
Lamprecht v. Regensburg daughter Syon 3053 W .;
how were you so virtuous
he was then done
and he the mother is recovered
therefor the himele giftic what,
Heinrich v. Heslera Cup. 11541 H .;
and even blame yourself on it
How did your people feel?
there is din togunthaftis alive,
Johannes Rotherittersp. 343 N .;
I should always mourn: my rich falcon, my virtuous frawe Johann v. Teplackermann 7, 7 H.
Under the influence of the moral-religious meaning, the knightly-courtly usage (see above B) is transformed. the transition within court is shown by the following evidence:
wis ime (Luitpold) genædic, herre got:
Pure marine: minnes. spring 168, 28 kr .;
valsch and valsche has custom
and the must be a virtuous stat
Rudolf v. EmsWilleh. 9743;
virtuous and high-spirited,
whether I held the knightly order,
I do not know this: sô hânt ir me
and all your senses
Reinfrid v. Brunswick 3158 B.
'gentle, gentle', 'polite'; probably in connection with courtly usage 'of noble decency' etc., cf. virtuous, f., virtuous, adj., virtuous (C 1 b β and γ), where the connection with other usage is clearer. only by chance limited dialect (Alemannic, Alsatian)? also with the other derivations only attested Alemannic. cf. virtuous 'meek' Ch. Schmidtwb. d. els. ma. 363ᵇ; aequus animus a dultig and ruͤwig mu ,t, wol zefriden, quiet, virtuous J. Frisiusdict. (1556) 48ᵇ: blessed are the good or kind, when they will have the earthly (Matth. 5, 5, πραεῖς, mites) Keisersbergpostill (1522) 4, 25ᵇ; consider, the got merciful, good, milt, virtuous is this. bilgerschaff (1512) 30ᶜ; learning, says the lord, of me when I am virtuous of this. soul paradise (1510) 99ᵇ. Hence the following, isolated passage is to be understood as a 'calmed, healing' wound as opposed to an 'inflamed' one: if you anger the wound, no good knowledge of wine, and no camillae flowers ... and be patient im a ... duͦch dorinn wetted ... over the wounds, so the wound would be against virtue Gersdorffwundarzney (1517) 27ᵇ.
New High German.
'morally perfect', 'noble', 'good', 'pious'. At the time of the main spread (17th and 18th centuries, rationalism and enlightenment) combined with the secondary meaning 'clever, in accordance with reason', 'in accordance with the law and the rule', from which then the meaning rejected by lively spirits 'upright, well-behaved, narrow-minded' results (cf. below and under virtue III B 3): there is a story of guilt because of father and mother who are worthy of sy nit to have sane and virtuous child Keisersberggranatapfel (1510) c 2ᵇ;
(They have) turned all ir break into
the people frumb to pull virtuously
Plato, when he notes that the philosopher Xenocrates, who otherwise proclaims himself a pious, honest, virtuous one, but were somewhat rougher in manners, impeccable demeanor, sharp and almost indolent, he takes hold of something, he should make the gratiis ... sacrifice do Fischartw. 3, 149 Hauffen (marriage breeding booklet); then where those who rule over others are no better and more virtuous than the subjects, oh so the regiment will never come Michael Walther Prophet Daniel (1645) 1, 511; In common one sets the bravery to strangle and slaughter, which is an inhuman cruelty rather than a virtue, or if it is supposed to be a virtue, the victors are more virtuous than the people of Chr. Ryssel Peace of Mind (1685) 299; in that we have already shown above from the doctrine of reason that not a single person is virtuous according to his nature. Chr. Thomasiusartzeney against unreasonable love (1692) 499; dumb and jerky people are not virtuous, although the virtuous are not exactly subtle, cunning, excellent poets and so on, or make uncommon examples of wonderful memories ibid 176; But a virtuous person has a skill to accomplish what makes him and his condition more perfect Chr. Wolffgedancken v. d. people do and let (1720) 42; Roscommon, the head so learned as virtuous, in morals as noble as in flowered Bodmercrit. poet. (1741) 1.84; Then one is only virtuous when one drives one to be absent, when one feels, when one has the opportunity to satisfy such, but Rabeners generously overcomes both. schr. (1777) 1, 196; so that Agathon would be the image of a real person ... he ... could not be imagined more virtuously than he is prepared by WielandAgathon (1766) .; how? Must he who is supposed to be virtuous have not made a mistake? Lessing 2, 276 L.-M .; as soon as more enlightened, more virtuous times, as we are allowed to promise us more and more under a Joseph II, will also give the Reichshofrathe must and material to seek out hidden virtues and to reward good deeds. 13, 142; the purpose of all education is to raise virtuous, sensible and healthy children Lichtenbergverm. schr. (1800) 2, 194;
do you cry because of the playmates
not as you believed of her, honest and virtuous?
Klopstockoden 1, 34, 64 M.-P .;
so you will ... notice how certain crimes occur very often at one time, which are completely lost at another; not ... because the human being has become more virtuous ..., but because the passions have taken a more subtle path to break out from Justus Mösers. w. (1842) 2, 310 Abeken; What a great subject to show that in order to be what one ought to be, one must neither ... be Greek, nor wilder, nor more martyred ... be; it is precisely the enlightened, informed, refined, reasonable, educated, virtuous, enjoying person who encourages god on the level of our culture Herder 4, 365 p .; have you visited the virtuous philanthropist, the noble sage ...? Klingerw. (1809) 3, 274; the beloved writers of the nation seem to have made this human weakness (that the viewers want to see virtuous things in the theater) a rule, because truly, we surpass all the peoples of Europe in virtuous novels and virtuous drama, and fortunately for these knights of virtue are the Cervantes and Molier's preface to the pious wishes of the wiser part of the people FM Klingertheater 2 (1786): 'the oath' 6; Gellert's precious virtuous writings ibid 1, 160; and on the ode Elise you can't see Klopstok's stamp? ... so beautiful, so virtuously dandling, as a great spirit dallied. the Swiss call Klopstoken the author of this ode - his spirit and his language are also Schubart letters 1, 163 Strausz; he is the best, most virtuous citizen Göthe I 11, 108 W .;
you yourself are fathers, heads of a house,
and wish you a virtuous son,
honor the lure of your holy head
one day doesn't make a murderer or a molester
the blood of a virtuous man
virtue becomes the source of our happiness and from the inextinguishable desire to make ourselves happy, virtue receives its strength ... be virtuous! be happy! two tones that sound at the same time and the most beautiful harmony of the universe are formed by A. W. Schlegel in: Athenaeum (1798) 1, 1, 161; people who are so eccentric as to be seriously virtuous in their entirety ... understand each other everywhere, find each other easily, and form a silent opposition to the prevailing immorality, which applies to Friedr. Schlegel in: Athenaeum (1798) 1, 2, 127; Just as the vicious person can never lack opportunities to be virtuous because of his identity - so the virtuous person can never lack opportunities in Novalisschr. 2, 219 cl .; a purity of manners never before experienced among the most virtuous and enlightened peoples of J. G. Forster. schr. (1843) 4, 168; if the world is first virtuous, then it becomes free of its own accord. 7, 198; only one Zwingli was humanist and at the same time humane enough, virtuous pagans like Socrates, Aristides and others. In spite of the lack of baptism, I can easily transfer D. F. Strauszges to heaven. schr. (1876) 6, 21; a morally virtuous person is therefore not already morally Hegelw. (1832) 10, 1.70; Nobody will so easily consider a doctrine to be true, simply because it makes you happy or makes you virtuous: except for the lovely 'idealists' who rave about the good, true, beautiful Nietzschew. 4, 2, 49 B .; For a long time only virtuous men have been elevated to the papal chair by Rankes. w. (1867) 40/41, 80; A philological offspring can get a fright from him (Lachmann), like a sinful grandson who suddenly sees himself foreseeing the image of a virtuous, strict W. Schererkl. schr. (1893) 1.93; people who have no food worries are rarely tempted to steal. they don't understand theft of poor people. And so many people are virtuous because they have no opportunity to be the opposite Hans Roseliebder Erbe (1922) 274. - This area also includes: a bad wine: a virtuous wine (which does not drive anything unusual?) Lever diaries 2, 408 W.
In continuation of the courtly view (above B 1 a and d) often by princes and heads of state: if they taught young Valerius everything that a virtuous man could do ... A. U. v. Brunswick Octavia (1677) 2, 600; the keizer was so kind and virtuous that he was of no use to the poor priests harumb tett aeg. Tschudichron. Helv. (1734) 1,308; by Henrici VI. Mental inclinations, as described in different ways, and he is now praised as a virtuous regent, now presented as a bloodthirsty, furious Hahnteutsch staats-, Reichs- und Kayserhistorie (1721) 4, 1; the virtuous monarch, burning with popular love, is now a prisoner of nefarious strelits K. Fr. Cramer-Neseggab (1791) 1, 161; may finally his (George III) grandchildren ... sit on the British throne and ... for the example of all princes be virtuous HallerAlfred (1773) 5ᵇ; a righteous man, and even more a virtuous, righteous king, is god's most sublime, noblest work of H. P. Sturzschr. (1779) 1.44; he seems to have the maas of a wise and virtuous statesman with the exception of a few lines Schubartleben u. Gesinnungen 1 (1791) 240; a model of a clever, virtuous, just ruler Klingerw. (1809) 3, 126.
often said by the woman; in the 16th century mostly general, almost formulaic (see above B 1 d); later the moral undertone, 'celibate, chaste', intensifies; 'honorable, demure, domestic', which can lead to a noble and dignified view as well as to the narrow, prudish and pedantic:
one burgers daughter, beautiful and frum
virtuous with great wealth
Hans Sachs 21, 206 lit. ver .;
she is not, as jr says ... but a wise, virtuous woman Amadis 37 lit. ver .; yes, whoever (man) surrenders to the lust and wantonness, makes that she (the woman) then also pursues the same bosses schicket and geylheit and opulence. but when he pursues virtuous and honest things, he also makes them honorable, chaste and virtuous fishartw in the same measure. 3, 139 H .; they saw their king come back accompanied by such a virtuous queen A. U. v. Braunschweig Octavia (1677) 1, 49; according to this he ... the chaste ears of this virtuous princess injured LohensteinArminius (1689) 1, 13ᵇ; Your wife, mother, was ... Leibnizdt as beautiful as she was witty and virtuous. schr. (1838) 2,417; my dear daughter. - live as your elders taught you, virtuous and impeccable NicolaiSeb. Emergency anchor (1773) 1,66; if a virtuous girl praises our songs S. Gessnerschr. (1777) 1.18; Constanze is the virtuous, honorable, reasonable and faithful lover of the righteous and for her well-thinking Mozart in: O. JahnMozart (1856) 3, 152;
your gentle nature, your spirit,
your virtuous quiet life,
has flourished in the world for nothing
Gottschedged. (1751) 1,286;
she is virtuous and beautiful, clever and well educated, in one word, she has all the characteristics of a perfect woman's room Borkenstein bookes bag 12, 39 lit. denkm .; Marwood, you are speaking completely according to your character, whose ugliness I have never known so much as since I learned to distinguish love from lust while dealing with a virtuous friend Lessing 2, 286 L.-M .; in the arms of a charming and virtuous wife Göthe I 22, 286 W .;
Why does Amanda forgive me for the joke and Almansaris tobet?
that one is virtuous, friend, this one proves that she is seys
if the mother was virtuous, she is very interesting because of the most heaped mess; If she was not, she will at least be punished so bitterly that the mistake should be forgotten. Caroline 1, 127 Waitz-Schmidt; where does the good girl live, who is virtuous and domesticated, ... will skillfully make your hands for useful and purposeful work Cl. BrentanoGodwi (1801) 1,41; the desire to finally know in peace my old father, my sick, weak, but virtuous mother ... J. G. Forsters. schr. (1843) 7, 122; for a virtuous woman always has a great influence on her husband, even if he does not love her. A. v. Droste-Hülshoffbriefe 87 Schücking; Strangely enough, throughout the whole of the Germanic folk line, the one who is the best and most virtuous housewife who makes the most noise with her bowls and pans and is never seen without pulling something edible between her fingers, G. Kellerges. w. (1889) 4, 170. - seldom used in this narrow sense by manne:
open the blessing so speak afterwards
with a loud voice in German language:
goddess mandrake, i call you,
help make my husband virtuous!
so ewer man will be littered and good,
prove to you friendship and favor
Hans Sachs 17, 134 lit. ver .;
and that it would be harder for him to be so innocent, so virtuous and so wise in his marriage v. Loenges. kl. schr. (1749) 1.27; he was actually very virtuous; but once he was shipwrecked at Fontaneges. w. (1920) II 2, 24.
As a result of the moral conception of virtue, the negative sense of 'staid', 'pious', 'hypocritical' (cf. under virtue, III B 5): Rameau be what he is ... but not a virtuoso or a virtuous Göthe I 45, 66 W .; the enthusiasm that kindles a virginal mind for a hero ... in a great moment is a far different fire than that which flickers under the machine and illuminates some virtuous, elegantly favored feelings. Fouqué feelings, pictures (1819) 1, 80; Don't babble so virtuously and hypocritically to Holteierz. schr. (1861) 3, 102; there she wrote a story that is almost more boring than virtuous A. v. Droste envelope letters 324 Schücking; before one is virtuous, one must first get fed up with his farmer's field. schr. (1871) 2.59; we are far too virtuous, far too virtuous - the surface can be enough for us! Raabes. w. I 2, 20. especially clearly with Nietzsche: (the brave thinker) will say 'there is something cruel in the hang of my spirit': may the virtuous and amiable try to talk him out of Nietzschew. 4, 2, 158 B .; And if you had more strength and courage in your body, you would not press yourself down to virtuous nullity in this way. 6, 221; we are from the ground up, from time immemorial - used to lying. Or, to put it more virtuously and hypocritically, in short, more pleasantly: one is much more an artist than one is known to be. 4, 2, 102; He always wanted to pour her again and joked about the virtuous temperance of the Kahlenberg family Barchwitz (1902) 34; Mira's mouth was mocking when she told society about the wives of our krautjunker ... one is very virtuous, that is the first W. v. PolenzGrabenhäger (1898) 2, 63. - occasionally transferred to factual, 'correct', 'good': a prosaic avenue that ... in a dead straight, virtuous line led to Gutzkowges' castle. w. (1872) 4, 18.A use of this kind has the consequence that one adds a positive meaningful adjective when virtue is to be taken seriously (cf. ↗True, genuine virtue under virtue III B 5 b): therefore he adds: those members of the church who are not internally virtuous would only be like nails and hairs in the body of the church ; Actions that do not ... emerge voluntarily ... are not truly virtuous actions F. H. Jacobiw. (1812) 5, 87. through devaluation, virtuous (like virtue) can assume something frivoĺ-witty and ambiguous. This makes connections with substantives possible that are opposed to the content of virtuous or at least should not agree with it: so that what we lose in that virtuous gayness, which simplicity hastily takes for virtue itself, is lost WielandAgathon (1766) 2, 282 wins time in the most necessary and most amiable virtues, in sociability and moderation; the consequences of his virtuous unfaithfulness made the wish not to have committed them impossible, ibid. 2, 319; and gave his friends to taste all the bitterness that quiet people so generously donate to lovers with virtuous glee Göthe I 21, 92 W .; What stimulates one to look half suspiciously, half mockingly at all philosophers is ... that it is not honest enough with them: while they all make a great and virtuous noise as soon as the problem of truthfulness is touched even from afar Nietzschew . 4, 2, 11 B.
virtuous as an attribute of factual substantives. heart, soul, spirit, character, spirit are called virtuous as bearers of virtue:
'is he neither knight nor knight?'
'vrouwe, swa vür irn seen,
he is a knight and a man;
then you have no zwivel,
daz disiu sunne never certify
Gottfried v. Straszburg Tristan 10774 R .;
at this he (Seuse) was shown merciful Seuset from a multitude of pure, virtuous hearts. schr. 122, 30 B .; a hard ... heart cannot be a ... virtuous heart J. A. Cramernord. overseer (1758) 1, 303. - dero honesty and virtuoso disposition I intend to entrust such things dörffte Grimmelshausen 2, 755, 16 cellars; to the know one yes wol: dasz ... virtuous cozyher also from reading the bad ... to draw something good LohensteinArminius (1689) 1, preliminary report c 3ᵇ; Poetry that is not made to entertain ruin in infected hearts, but the pleasure of being a virtuous cozier K. W. Ramlereinl. in d. beautiful science. (1758) 1, 135. - it is argued that a beautiful, virtuous soul lives in a beautiful house made of clay. pole. (1662) 1.36; (the jealousy) got into the utmost rage, and took other virtuous souls to reproach their insults from J. Mösers. W. 5, 93 Abeken; but only noble virtuous souls are capable of this wonderful feeling of friendship Schiller 1, 31 G. - (the) example of a gentle ... and in all respects innocent virtuous character Bahrdtgesch. see Lebens (1790) 1, 30; who wanted to question the virtuous character of those invincible knights ... simply because they wore trousers according to the fashion of the day J. G. Forsters. schr. (1843) 2, 295.
but what no rhyme on earth praises sufficiently,
is, in the beautiful body, a virtuous spirit
Soft man poetry d. Lower Saxony (1721) 1, 145.
The behavior in general and individual expressions of behavior are described as virtuous: they preach a brilliant moral doctrine and a virtuous walk Göthe I 37, 169 W .; Schopenhauerw is required to use reason when carrying out a virtuous change. 1, 100 gr .; Especially since one would like to trust G. Kellerges in the talent, diligence and virtuous leadership of the man in question. w. (1889) 2, 100. when a nation is laughed at out of noble enthusiasm and virtuous principles Th. Abbtverm. w. (1768) 2, 31. - (Mellefont :) a virtuous decision secures me against your tenderness and against your wit Lessing 2, 286 L.-M .; where, then, a higher, more virtuous act than the education of youth? Schiller 1, 67 G .;
she has long been looking for virtuous works
to strengthen oneself to a blessed farewell
KortumJobsiade (1799) 3, 122.
A virtuous or morally good act always presupposes an inward commitment of reason and heart, which we knowingly and willingly exercise Gellert. schr. (1784) 6, 125; Nemesis, as the goddess of the retribution of good and virtuous actions by Winckelmann. w. (1825) 5,365; every product of art should therefore inculcate some doctrine, stimulate some sensation, which immediately led to virtuous actions. Humboldtges. schr. (1903) 1, 58. the epic ... poem is a school for the reader, where he is awakened to lofty, virtuous and generous undertakings ... J. Breitingercrit. Dichtkunst (1740) 1, 104; if their (the peoples') manners and customs are virtuous ... follow them billich A. Olearius travel description (1696) 2ᵃ; for the ... virtuous customs are indubitable indications that they did not arise from the rough Scythians ... be LohensteinArminius (1689) 1, 123ᵇ;
She is also noble in manners,
everything you do is virtuous
Gottschedged. (1751) 1, 248.
den vrawen ie daz best spoke
Johann v. Wuerzburg Wilh. v. Austrian 5476 R .;
the virtuoso offers
ir ore, since one of virtues is cunning
the kusz he gave the prince was, as he himself says, the first of his life, and this was certainly a very virtuous kusz! Schiller 6, 65 G. they regularly close (the comedies of Terence) with a virtuous wedding Mommsenröm. Gesch. 2 (1874) 434. Moral and spiritual qualities are virtuous: which, through the transformation into a laurel tree, only depicts a virtuous love. Heräusged. (1721) 224;
Is it possible? may the fire in the anger's black flames,
come from the virtuous ardor of a tender love?
Schönaichin: grace. scholarship (1751) 3, 495 Gottsched;
virtuous love flames A. G. Kästnerverm. schr. (1755) 1,116; we can form the pillars of high spirits, the marmel of virtuous persistence according to this (after a Greek column) ButschkyPathmos (1677) 18; a virtuous heroism overlooks A. H. Bucholtz Herculiskus (1665) preface b 2ᵇ; the virtuous desire to do good on a large scale WielandAgathon (1766) 2, 67; you say so much good, you write as much evil about man as you want, it just depends on the use you make of both kinds of judgment; how they are united together by active kindness and wisdom. The purpose of the nobler drama of the Greeks was to establish a wise and virtuous center in the human being between the two extremes. Herder 17, 190 p .; your face shines with virtuous delight, gentle tears slide your glowing cheeks down Wielandge. schr. I 3, 26 acad .; I adore this virtuous embarrassment, Schiller 5, 1, 109 G .; the generosity, a virtuous disposition Kinderlingreinigk. d. German language (1795) 374; (Aminta) passes the sample O. JahnMozart (1856) 1, 400 through his virtuous temperance; I honor and love such beautiful and virtuous errors J. Paulw. 6, 60 Hempel; the grandson's blue eyes wept, his brown ones flashed with virtuous anger Immermannw. 1, 7 boxb .; I think that such virtuous wisdom, such modesty, and would ... are unnatural on a seventeen-year-old lad are Holteierz. schr. (1861) 10:99; the general is for the virtuous consciousness in belief, or in itself truly Hegelw. (1832) 2, 287; with the virtuous enthusiasm and foolishness of many a philosopher Nietzschrw. 4, 2, 46.
virtuous associated with opposing terms. Above all, blasphemy: either the person, if we love, loves a person next to us who is also virtuous and probably even surpasses us; or loves a vicious one who does not deserve their respect. Chr. Thomasiusv. d. to love art sensibly and virtuously (1692) 268; when the person ... is either extremely virtuous or extremely vicious Lichtenbergnachlasz (1899) 7; (It is) a mistake in their tragedies that their virtuous people are perfectly ideal and their vicious ones are completely devils. JahnMozart (1856) 2, 383; so many virtuous girls became vicious women Schiller 3, 571 G .; the conviction that pure virtue and goodness are somewhere is the best that can become for us, and even the soul of the vicious rubs its invisible dark hands with pleasure when it perceives that others are good and virtuous for you G. Basement w. (1889) 3, 17. - isolated: after a soul has demonstrated obedience and obedience, it descends into a sinful or virtuous race of men Herder 26, 344 p .; the tragedy, he supposes, is supposed to arouse pity and horror: and from this he concludes that its hero need not be a very virtuous man or a complete villain Lessing 10, 97 L.-M .; noble and ignoble, wise and foolish, rich and poor, virtuous and sinful Schubart life and attitudes 2 (1793) 102;
a bright night is not like living death,
how fiery ice, how virtuous a crime?
E. Raupach Dram. w. serious gattg. (1835) 2, 139.
he substantives the virtuous; since ahd .; ahd. evidence (Notker, Bamberger confession) see under C 2 a α:
and as a liecht in ainer vinster,
the dar shines with its glinster
still vester, because whether it is the day on shin,
so being virtuous is sin
Hans Vintlerpluemen the virtue 282 Z.
what remains for you on earth is constant name fame,
virtue of virtue, of piety
Joh. Grobepigr. 187 lit. ver .;
a single virtuous man comes under consideration against a whole hell full of villains Wieland I 2, 453 akad .; One acquires either a good or a bad name in the world, then one can choose between the two, and since everyone must die, good or bad, happy he who preferred the glory of a virtuous one Göthe I 7, 81 W. ( notes ... to the divan); Lombard swears again no higher than with Bornstedt, the virtuous, splendid one who overturns all triumphant Sodomas A. v. Droste-Hülshoffbriefe 194 Schücking; local and temporary personality disappears in virtue. the virtuous as such is not a historical individual. - it is god himself Novalisschr. 3, 347 cl .; Above all, my virtuous gentlemen, you have one priority before us: we should bring you Nietzschew's modesty to mind. 6, 221 B. -
Reference
German dictionary by Jacob and Wilhelm Grimm. Lfg. 11 (1952), Vol. XI, I, II (1952), Col. 1645, line 21.