What is A2A and B2A

Table of Contents. 2 E-Government A2A B2A A2C ... 5


1 Business information systems Contents Contents 1 Basics Overview The four dimensions of ebusiness Actors Transaction phases Transaction volumes Economic / technical level E-Government A2A B2A A2C Business models on the Internet E-Portal E-Mediator E-Shop E-Procurement / E-Purchasing E-Auction E- Mall Third Party Marketplace Virtual Communities Value Chain Service Providers Value Chain Integrators Collaboration Platforms Information Brokerage, Trust Services Other Business Models Conventional Business Application Systems 11 5 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems History of SAP - Software, Applications, Products in Data Processing ERP Implementation Trends Content Management Systems Development Terms Architecture Staging Server Live Server Examples Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 1

2 Business information systems Table of contents 7 Standardization in B2B data exchange EDI - Electronic Data Interchange Product classification ETIM - Electrical technical information model Catalog data exchange BMEcat transaction standards opentrans xcbl - XML ​​Common Business Libraray Business process integration ebxml marketplaces and shops Classification of marketplaces Levels Components Architecture Enterprise Application Integration Integration at data level Integration at the functional level Integration at the process level Customer Communication Portal Phone Manager Web Manager Ticket Manager FAQ Manager Campaign Manager Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 2

3 Business information systems 1 Basics 1 Basics 1.1 Overview 1.2 The four dimensions of ebusiness actors Authorities, companies, consumers B2B, C2C, E-Government (G2B and G2C) Roles: Market participants, market operators Transaction phases Information phase: Information in the offer catalog Negotiation phase: Establishing contact Processing phase: Conclusion of contract Transaction volume Zero Nano <0.05 euros Micro <5 euros Medium 5 euros 500 euros Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 3

41 A2A special form, since there is no trade in the actual sense between different states between different public institutions of a country (authorities, tax office) takes place as support for cross-border trade transactions (customs) Example: GEZ and registration offices Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 4

5 Business information systems 3 Business models on the Internet 2.2 B2A stands for business relationships between a government agency or public institution and companies / institutions Prerequisite: Obligation of the state to carry out procurement measures of a certain magnitude according to a tendering model Orders specified and published in the form of service descriptions Companies can submit offers ( Period) Offers are compared / evaluated and orders are awarded Result I: B2A is strongly oriented towards procurement and is mostly limited to supporting the information and negotiation phase Result II: Handling of procedures and product specifications in the area of ​​public tenders are mostly still too complex Systems: collaboration portals, tendering systems 2.3 A2C enables citizens to access the services of public institutions through IT. Differentiation from e-business / commerce: A2C relationship has no commercial C Characteristic, since the state does not want to sell anything to the citizen, usually subsidized services Areas of application: Form server Electronic tax return Broker applications (job search) Citizen participation (elections) Local e-offices (dog, relocation) 3 business models on the Internet Is an architecture for a product, a service and Information flows including various actors and their roles from the marketplace to the marketspace (transaction content, transaction context, transaction infrastructure) Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 5

6 Company information systems 3 Business models on the Internet 3.1 E-portal intended as a start page Comprehensive search functions fully financed by advertising Many free services Free chats Newsticker private homepages use the services of other (content) providers; Stock market charts, weather news 3.2 E-Mediator also Infomediation or Intermediation is based exclusively on the information within the market transactions not only need information infrastructure, but must also define processes Features: Electronic product catalog with products from several providers Transparent search across all providers Actual providers of a service can be seen Product comparison possible additional services such as electronic payment / contract conclusion Example: Geizhals.at (TODO - Is that so?) Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 6

7 Company information systems 3 Business models on the Internet 3.3 E-shop web-based marketing and sales instrument Extension of the real counter concept to use on the Internet, mostly in connection with traditional marketing channels Objective: Sale of goods / services Features: Market segment according to traditional marketing mix Product range available online Online order Use in B2C and B2B area Sale of soft and hard goods in mail order business close integration with merchandise management system for soft goods Liquidity check, download, dispatch, pick-up? Type of payment (pay-per-view / subscription) Processes can also be outsourced 3.4 E-Procurement / E-Purchasing refers to the organizational integration and design of electronic procurement processes for MRO products (Maintenance, Repair, Operating) via the Internet Features: Purchasing via the Internet primarily of non-strategic category C goods Support of an efficient selection process (mediation of supply and demand) Consistent restructuring of the process flow Integration of customer-supplier through strengthening of relationships Automation of the entire procurement process through IT Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 7

8 Company information systems 3 Business models on the Internet 3.5 E-auction Implementation of the auction concept from the real world into the Internet Make information for trading opportunities available to everyone Prevent simultaneous transactions at different prices Give higher priority to transactions for better orders Auction duration is much longer than in the marketplace ( a few hours to weeks) auctioneer usually takes action does not enter into the auction process, but only makes the platform available. Bids by software agent up to the desired maximum amount in B2C / C2C ebay.de, but also B2B variations: Reverse auction (suppliers bid for price), Dutch auction 3.6 E-Mall summary of several E -Shops under one name (shopping center) Offers additional options: Joint payment processing Uniform transport service Often communities with specialization in a specific market (vertical orientation) One speaks of industrial marketplaces Provider reaches many potential customers Provider can reduce transaction costs by sharing the infrastructure Customers do not have far Paths Customers have a large selection of shops Customers can easily compare prices Previously uniform layout of all shops Today every shop can be individually designed Shops integrated through meta catalog or supplier directory Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 8

9 Company information systems 3 Business models on the Internet 3.7 Third party marketplace outsourcing solution in the marketspace for e-shops, in contrast to the e-mall, here the provider can take over all functions (offer, order, order processing, delivery, payment) Features: predominantly special products or Products from specialty stores Market presence towards customers is carried out by 3rd party marketplace providers Classic outsourcing solution 3.8 Virtual Communities Community of Internet users with min.

10 Business Information Systems 3 Business Models in the Internet 3.9 Value Chain Service Provider VCSP is a service provider of specific functions from the value chain is not a new business area, these services are linked to the Internet Areas: logistics company, accounting, IT administration VCSP part of the value chain is separated and another company takes over this part FedEx, Deutsche Post, UPS, DPD 3.10 Value Chain Integrators Horizontal integration across several steps of the value chain Built-To-Order Systems VCI must follow the value chain redesign approach in order to be successful Companies do not have to add value, but invent value creation through utilization individual processes and their relationship to one another as well as integration of the customer via the Internet VCI uses process sequences of the value chain in such a way that it generates greater customer benefit and thus added value through their temporal and spatial design Service excellence: delivery of what customers want, with stress-free service and high value Operational excellence: fast delivery of high-quality, error-free and affordable products Continuous innovation excellence: delivery of products that push performance limits and delight customers, for example: Dell, compiling the PC online and delivery 3.11 Collaboration Platforms CP is a (virtual) environment to support innovation or development processes between market participants by creating favorable conditions, not particularly successful (neither in the marketplace nor in the marketplace). Virtual space to support cooperation between companies. Tools and methods are available and an information environment Example: project-related support by means of a virtual team of consultants Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 10

11 Company information systems 4 Conventional company application systems 3.12 Information Brokerage, Trust Services IB use amount of data on the web to filter useful things Information processing of data can be supplemented with virtual advice TS (Trust Services) special form of IB, does not require certification (state) independent business model trustcenter.de 3.13 Other business models E-News E-Learning E-Travel Online Entertainment 4 Conventional business application systems Tasks Analysis and description of processes in the company Design and description Realization and use of business applications Design of the technical infrastructure for information processing and communication within and between company organization and securing of IT usage analysis of the benefits and economic efficiency of computer use strategic further development of IT usage standard software modular structure Einbi Founding in software families Fixed price, available immediately Possibly poor runtime behavior Possibly interface problems to other applications Individual software tailored to the needs of the user Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 11


13 Company information systems 5 Enterprise Resource Planning systems Decision-making by man-machine dialog C (omputer) A (ided) (P (laning) Control systems for monitoring adherence to plans may indicate measures to be taken Functional principle: Symptom recognition - Diagnosis - Therapy proposal - Therapy prognosis Progress control / Quality control (deadlines and money) 5 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems ERP systems are integrated, industry-neutral standard software that covers, integrates and connects all business application areas. ERP systems represent a complete infrastructure for business information processing 5.1 History 1st generation: Material Requirement planning parts list processors Goal: Optimize order size 2nd generation: Manufacturing Resource Planning Date and capacity planning Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 13

14 Business Information Systems 5 Enterprise Resource Planning Systems Objectives: First: Maximize capacity utilization Later: Reduce throughput times 3rd generation Enterprise Resource Planning Integration of commercial functions 5.2 SAP software, applications, products in data processing 1972 Foundation in Walldorf Objective: Development and marketing of standard software Features: Coverage of business functions through modules (with subcomponents) in industry high level of integration large selection of industry-neutral and industry-specific business processes integrated customizing system ABAP programming language central company data and process model R / 2 terminal host, R / 3 client server (3 levels: Database services, application services, web server / Internet transaction server) 5.3 ERP implementation lengthy and expensive approx. 2.5 years, break-even after 5 years Accelerated SAP Central idea: Creation of a company-specific blueprint for prefabricated house pri nzip 1. Entry at scenario level (top-down) 2. Scenario processes are checked, possibly rearranged Lego principle Entry at the level of R / 3 process modules (buttom-up) Coupling of transactions to process modules, assembly to scenarios Marvin Frommhold , Daniel Gerber 14

15 Business Information Systems 6 Content Management Systems 5.4 Trends Conventional ERP systems will no longer exist Integration of e-commerce functions Web shops for merchandise management systems Replacement of EDI with XML Integration of CMS Usability 6 Content Management Systems 6.1 Development 1. Publishing static pages Retrieving static pages Pages (get / post) static pages are on the server side in the file system, first client-side dynamization 2.Dynamic generation and integration of content, first portals arise, staging / live server, editorial workflows, integrative workflows, content term arises EAI technologies are necessary 3. Creation of interactive information spaces Collection / evaluation of user data Profiling / personalization Roles and task adaptation (business workflows) Content mining 6.2 Terms Content management is the targeted and systematic handling of the creation, management and provision of content in a flexible manner r Granularity Role of IT: Support of the creation and administration process, the use and work of content suppliers Content creation Administration Storage Editorial process Information logistics Presentation Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 15

16 Business information systems 6 Content management systems Content separate consideration of layout, content and structure Structure definition Information class formation Management workflow, processes (QA, editing, maintenance, lifecycle) Link and change management Roles and rights Communication security Systems distribution (web server, offline, print ... ) Functional principles (staging, live, mix) Architecture Technologies Integration Raw data / raw information Legacy / ERP systems EAI Comonentware Middleware Problem dimensions Creation, life cycle Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 16

17 Business Information Systems 6 Content Management Systems Process, Workflow, Roles / Authorization Concepts Architecture, Infrastructure, Integration Life Cycle 6.3 Architecture Staging Server for Static Information with Cyclical Publication Content is created and managed in a separate environment Gernerat is generated cyclically and exported to the staging server Advantages: good performance no author can make changes in the live system separate content creation possible on distributed system Disadvantages: unsuitable for movement data (availability queries) Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 17

18 Business information systems 7 Standardization in B2B data exchange Live server for highly dynamic content creation and updates Short-lived information, fast update cycles Generat script logic generates direct access to database systems and application servers on request Advantages: Page access is up-to-date, integration platform for business processes and models Disadvantages: Security problems of the physical network structure 6.4 Examples VIP - outdated no longer exists, replaced by Open Text ECM Suite Joomla, Typo3 7 Standardization in B2B data exchange Companies have to adapt quickly to changes in business processes. Competitive advantages through the integration of existing information systems. Increasing market transparency and shortening lead times Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 18

19 Business information systems 7 Standardization in B2B data exchange standardized procedures are required Standards must be open (open interfaces) Acceptance and dissemination Beginning in the 1970s (EDI), but the technological basis only in 1998 through XML 7.1 EDI - Electronic Data Interchange Electronic exchange of business documents such as Orders, delivery notes or invoices between IT systems, standardized documents, structured data, common communication channel Basic forms: bilateral point-to-point connections between 2 companies, multilateral point-to-point connections, clearing center (service) 7.2 Product classification Form the basis for uniform and cross-company categorization and description of product data Basics for electronic business transactions Further standards: UN / SPSC, NAMUR hierarchical system for grouping materials according to a logical scheme in detailing according to the product characteristics stik or -charkmale Subject areas Main groups Groups Subgroups Characteristics forms sales and procurement markets, as well as technical relationships can be used along the entire supply chain (development to disposal) ETIM - electrical technical information model Descriptive working model for craft businesses, does not include the entire work process from planning to service items describe completely only the most important features uses bmecat, edifact) important components: article classification clearly named independent of manufacturer, synonyms, independent of language Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 19

20 Business information systems 7 Standardization in B2B data exchange 7.3 Catalog data exchange Electronic product catalogs define the technical data interface between catalog processing systems contain information about products (names, descriptions, prices ...) each provider uses its own format (XML, CSV) high effort for exchange / integration remedy further standards through catalog standards and interfaces: catxml, EDIFACT with PRICAT BMEcat Federal Association of Materials Management, Purchasing and Logistics uses XML to comprehensively consider requirements for multimedia product catalogs and catalog structures special transactions (price / product update) presentation of catalog structures definition of product features (color, size) Graphics and videos possible several languages ​​and prices / currencies 7.4 Transaction standards Exchange of business documents such as offers, orders, invoices previously via letter / fax must be standardized relatively le icht, because business documents vers. Companies only marginally different efficient and media discontinuity-free business processing possible opentrans created by BME working group builds on experience with BMEcat in e-procurement based on BMEcat reuse of BMEcat definitions focus on simple transactions, standardized business documents (order, invoice) development of mapping on xcbl, RosettaNet Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 20

21 Business information systems 7 Standardization in B2B data exchange Objective: short term: fast implementation of opentrans messages long term: migration to future, generally accepted B2B business transaction standard (ebxml) xcbl - XML ​​Common Business Libraray modular principle for the definition of XML messages very complex (plus individual adaptation) Manufacturer-dependent lack of acceptance 7.5 Business process integration GP define conditions for the exchange of business documents between companies E-business processes are shown as a chain vers.


23 Business information systems 8 Marketplaces and shops 1. Registry for standard models of business processes 2. Filing of relevant profile information of a participant in the registry as CPP (Collaboration Protocol Profile) 3. Query of the CPP from the registry 4. Generating a CPA (Collaboration Protocol Agreement) 5. Agreement a framework agreement for document exchange 6. Data exchange in current business relationship Modeling of business processes using UMM UN / CEFACT Modeling Methodology Separation between Business Operational View and Functional Service View BOV - Concentration on business aspects of the FSV cooperation - Concentration on technical interfaces and functions 8 marketplaces and shops 8.1 Classification of marketplaces divided into horizontal (industry-independent) and vertical (industry-dependent) h / v again divided into 1st level: links, 2nd level: catalogs, 3rd level: auctions, 4th level: processes 8.2 Levels 1st level information-oriented : no business transactions no catalogs no pricing mechanisms link lists, product announcements, competitions 2nd level catalog-oriented: product information search options price comparison options no business transactions 3rd level auction-oriented: dynamic pricing mechanisms Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 23

24 Company information systems 8 Marketplaces and shops Transaction support No business process integration 4th level Process-oriented: Transaction support Business process integration ERP integration Reduction of direct and indirect costs Requirements Order management Transaction support Dynamic pricing Content management Participant management Integration capability 8.3 Components Shop database with product information Categorization of product information Assignment of attributes to Products Characterization of these attributes Structure must enable updating and readout Administration database contains further administration data Parameters for payment gateway Database schema for customers, warehouses, transaction information Presentation system Representation of data from catalog Data fetched from database via SQL queries and built in HTML templates Distribution over several physical ones Systems Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 24

25 Company information systems 8 Marketplaces and shops Payment gateway mostly external providers Interface to the clearing server of the bank / credit card company General Basic functions of the shop systems are roughly the same everywhere, but quality features: Wizards for setting up new shops Flexible expandability with non-standard applications Other components: Statistics data mining Systems, EDI integration, customer relationship management, search engine, SAP modules, tax system, call center, CMS shops: oscommerce, Oxid Eshop, Omeco Webshop, Boxalino, Intershop 6, Intershop Enfinity 8.4 Architecture shop system consists of configurable ones as in reality Basic modules trend: business logic object of the modeling, then leads to the configuration of the system Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 25

26 Company information systems 8 Marketplaces and shops In-house hosting Dealer operates and manages his shop server alone in his own company Management is only from Intranet Mall provider with billing function All shops seamlessly embedded in the mall Administration by each shop operator even via the Internet Mall provider Transaction data at the retailer mall provider only distribution function triggering a payment process is carried out by the retailer Mall provider only organizes delivery Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 26

27 Business Information Systems 9 Enterprise Application Integration 9 Enterprise Application Integration The term EAI summarizes technologies that enable automated communication and interoperability between different applications and business processes within and between organizations. Operation of a shop system requires statements about the availability and price of products. are procured from the ERP system coupling through cyclical comparison of the data sets inadequate, as availability information is not reliable and dynamic pricing is not possible online connection is necessary system coupling as the key to problem solving Conclusion: technical integration is a prerequisite for implementing a high degree of business process flexibility types: point to point : All systems interconnected, spaghetti structures ERP-based integration: ERP system as a core application, additional communication between satellite systems required EAI: central integration hub with process knowledge Integration breadth: along the value chain Deeper integration: degree of semantic integration 9.1 Integration at data level Transfer of data from System A to B using data transfer protocols with minimal semantic integration requirements Advantages: Relatively simple and inexpensive, no or minor changes to the application required Disadvantages: Marvin From mhold, Daniel Gerber 27

28 Business Information Systems 9 Enterprise Application Integration Dependency on data model / bank possible endangerment of the data integrity of the applications Realization: Database middleware Example: Müller; Bernd; 777; 12; 12893; Hauptstraße 9.2 Integration at the functional level Use of functions of the system to be integrated to access on data of the application logic of higher semantic quality than data integration Advantages: Independence from the data structure of the application Disadvantages: Dependency on the functionality of the interfaces Realization: Distributed Object Technology Message Oriented Middleware Example: Create customer (Müller; Bernd; 777; 12; 12893; Hauptstraße) 9.3 Integration at the process level support of processes in which objects are processed Advantages: high process flexibility single point of control Disadvantages: complex implementation Realization: EAI integration server Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 28

29Media creates Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 29

30 Company information systems 10 Customer Communication Portal 10.1 Phone Manager Telephony module of the CCP based on a telephony server Definition of dialog processes (call flows) Queue management Voic functions inbound Acceptance of telephone calls, callback requests, voice mails Interactive voice response Answering routine questions by means of text-to-speech generation of qualified tickets outbound mediation of phone calls from ticket processing mediation and call transfer for queries and ticket forwarding support of automatic dialing procedures when using the camping manager manager For operators: acceptance of mails via mail server conversion of mails into tickets web-based interface for mail filter rules generation and sending of mails from ticket manager control von -Kampangen Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 30

31 Company information systems 10 Customer Communication Portal For senders targeted forwarding of the request to a suitable processor Notification when processing steps are completed IMAP4, POP3, MAPI, SMTP, Outlook integration Classification by sender, subject, possibly keyword search for forwarding 10.3 Web Manager For operators: enrichment the web presence with web forms, mail, IP telephony automatic pre-qualification (checkboxes) and forwarding to employees for senders retrieval of information from FAQ database status query of customer inquiries inquiries via web forms call-me-back button 10.4 ticket manager supports electronic recording and processing of Inquiries as online-offline tickets via all multi-channels media-neutral and competence-oriented assignment to employees and prioritization Inclusion of all relevant information of the process in ticket documentation Communication history always available Interfaces for connection from vers. Media and customer databases Operator view: overview of relevant tickets can create, search, accept and edit tickets Administrator: sees incomplete tickets, can delete tickets: open, closed, closed, in progress Configuration: create operators and groups, classification and prioritization (washing machine + 100) Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 31

32 Company information systems 10 Customer Communication Portal 10.5 FAQ Manager module to support outbound campaigns for telemarketing / sales Implementation of campaigns via telephone, web,, sms targeted / systematic campaigns favorable cost / benefit ratio statistical evaluations of the campaign processes Preview dialing (call to take over the ticket) Power Dialing (system dials all the time and distributed to freelancers) Predictive dialing (probability-oriented connection establishment) 10.6 Campaign Manager System for effective support in quick / qualified answering of customer questions Collection, backup and distribution of knowledge in the knowledge database Research interface Editing interface (TTL, create, delete , Release ..) Marvin Frommhold, Daniel Gerber 32