Are underground mining trucks legal?

EP2325601B1 - Measurement of underground structures, especially when driving underground, with frogs - Google Patents

Measurement of underground structures, especially when driving underground, with frogs Download PDF


Publication number
EP2325601B1EP10005172.1AEP10005172AEP2325601B1EP 2325601 B1EP2325601 B1EP 2325601B1EP 10005172 AEP10005172 AEP 10005172AEP 2325601 B1EP2325601 B1EP 2325601B1
European Patent Office
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construction site
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English (en)
French (fr)
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EP2325601A3 (de
EP2325601A2 (de
Rolf Kemper-Böninghausen
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Emscher Cooperative
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Emscher Cooperative
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Priority to DE102010004231priority
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Publication of EP2325601A3publicationCriticalpatent / EP2325601A3 / de
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Publication of EP2325601B1publicationCriticalpatent / EP2325601B1 / de
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    • G — PHYSICS
    • G01C7 / 00 — Tracing profiles
    • G01C7 / 06 — Tracing profiles of cavities, e.g. tunnels
    • E21D9 / 00 — Tunnels or galleries, with or without linings; Methods or apparatus for making thereof; Layout of tunnels or galleries
    • E21D9 / 003 — Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, e.g. for guiding machines
    • E21D9 / 004 — Arrangement of measuring or indicating devices for use during driving of tunnels, e.g. for guiding machines using light beams for direction or position control


  • The invention relates to the measurement of underground structures, in particular when driving underground. Surveying is essential when driving underground. But even after the completion of an underground structure, measurements are necessary, for example to determine the settlement of the structure.
  • Underground driving occurs in mining, sewer construction, tunnel driving, pipe driving and underpasses. Various methods are available for tunneling underground.
  • Mining is already familiar with various tunneling methods. These include, for example, blasting, shield driving, knife driving and press driving. The advance must be measured for each of the methods.
  • The structure is preferably measured / measured in every direction.
  • Special processes are sometimes used in underground sewer construction, as well as for pipe jacking.
  • In a variant, a cutting pipe / cutting shoe is driven through the ground by means of a pipe press, starting from a starting pit. After each press stroke, the press is moved back to the starting position so that a second pipe section can be positioned in the starting pit in front of the press and another press actuation causes the pipe section to advance and the second pipe section advances the cutting pipe.
  • The process is repeated with every third pipe section as well as with every further pipe section.
  • In another variant, soil is removed in front of the channel that is being formed and tubbings are installed in the resulting cavity. In both variants of the canal construction, a measurement / measurement of the jacking and the pipes is required. When remeasuring, the deviation of the course of the canal from the position and height predetermined by the planning is measured or the deviation of the canal from a documentation status of the canal that is desired to be retained is measured.
  • When measuring, the desired planning position of the sewer is transferred to the jacking tools for the sewer construction.
  • Tunnel driving is most similar to driving in mining, even if the tunnel cross-sections are different from the route cross-sections in mining. The same procedures are used in tunneling as in mining. Correspondingly, there is also a measurement and re-measurement as in mining.
  • In some areas, pipe jacking is very similar to tunnel jacking, especially in the case of larger dimensions. Correspondingly, in pipe jacking there are also jacking methods such as tunnel jacking or canal construction.
  • Underpasses can be similar to tunnels, depending on their dimensions.
  • Correspondingly, measurements are also made as in tunnel construction.
  • Incidentally, earth movements repeatedly make re-measurements of underground structures necessary.
  • There are various methods for measuring the underground structure, especially when driving underground.
  • Traditionally, a geodetic survey takes place with a total station, which is set up by hand on the building floor or the channel floor. Tripods are used that are equipped with a height adjustment.
  • The total station is a device that can be used to determine horizontal directions, vertical angles and inclined distances. With it, measurements can be carried out quickly and with great accuracy.
  • The electronic total station automatically measures the directions after targeting. Electronic distance measurements are carried out at the same time. Either only the transit time or, in the case of more precise total stations, the transit time and phase shift of an emitted light beam that is reflected at the target point is measured. Usually the light of the carrier wave is in the infrared range or close to the infrared range. The light beam is usually reflected in a prism, preferably in a retroreflective triple prism or triple mirror. The measured values ​​(direction and distance are electronically determined fully automatically with the modern electronic total station. This can be done via combined / connected computers. Depending on the programs available, the electronic total station can be used for two-dimensional or three-dimensional mapping of buildings.
    The latest motorized total stations are equipped with an adjustment mechanism and a drive mechanism, which allow the automatic sighting of the triple prism / mirror and target tracking. In addition, these total stations are programmable so that they can measure several points fully automatically in precise sequence.
    A triple prism is a glass body that is flat and on the back has three non-mirrored surfaces at an angle of 90 degrees to each other. It reflects the light like a mirror, but with much less loss.
  • It is pointed out in FIG. 1 that there are only very cramped conditions for setting up the measuring device in a tunnel. This publication is based on the state of the art with stationary consoles. This should make a complex screw connection and the use of suitable tools necessary. In this publication it is proposed as an alternative to the fixed installation of consoles to clamp the tripod in the joints between two adjacent segments when lining segments. If necessary, the clamping force should be reinforced with screws / spring force / levers.
  • Clamping is only possible where there are joints with sufficient width that are able to accommodate the clamping mechanism. This is not only a serious disadvantage for joint sealing. The clamping also has various other disadvantages.
  • The describes a method for geodetic measurement in which the tunnel wall is measured with laser scanners. At the same time, the distance between the laser scanner and certain measuring points is measured. This results in the position of the laser scanner. The measured values ​​are then evaluated with a computer.
    The method is considered to be disadvantageous in that the laser scanner only has a relatively small measuring range. A large number of measurements are therefore required. This disadvantage is more pronounced the longer the route.
  • The develops the geodetic measurement after the. Various position points of the laser are measured and set as fixed points.
  • This describes a laser-controlled propulsion shield. An electrical reflector that sends out signals is used to determine the position of the shield drive. All values ​​are processed in a computer for machine control.
  • The describes a measuring method for controlling tunneling machines. A particular difficulty is seen in the curve pressing of pipes because there is no optical alley through the curve. In order to nevertheless carry out a laser measurement, a measurement in the manner of a polygon is provided. The laser should work together with a target plate. The laser beam forms the target position of the tunneling machine. The target board is attached to the heading machine and the heading machine is moved so that the laser beam hits the target field of the target board. Then the tunneling machine has reached its target position.
  • The suggests a similar solution. Theodolites are used for the measurement.
  • The describes a measurement system for a pre-pressed, curved pipe string.
  • A cutting shoe or cutting tube is located at the front of the pipe string. To control the cutting shoe, light beams and crosshairs as well as lasers and receivers and scanning devices are mentioned as prior art.
  • After that, a polygon should be measured with a curved pipe run. The measuring points and scanning systems are arranged at a fixed predetermined distance within the polygon. The distances between the measuring points remain constant during the pre-pressing. This proposed method prefers light-emitting diodes as measuring points and an ultrasonic measurement.
  • This also describes a laser system with reference points. This document is based on the so-called "NATM" tunneling method. The propulsion method concerns the
  • Blasting. During blasting, various bores are drilled into the rock, filled with explosives and dammed.
  • In order for the blast to produce a predetermined mountain eruption, the boreholes should be measured and marked with the help of lasers. The laser is moved by hand, even if a computer helps with the setting. The markings are applied by hand.
  • In addition, it is proposed to automate the measurement. A geodetic laser system is provided for this. The system should include: a laser measuring unit for performing the distance and angle measurements, a laser projector for directing the laser beam onto a mining shock, a control unit for determining the measuring points on the basis of the geodetic data. The laser measuring unit should work independently of the laser projector.
  • The describes a laser measuring device in which light beams are split up and deflected with the help of a prism.
  • This also describes laser measuring devices for tunneling. The laser device is associated with a collimation device.
  • Such a device is common with lasers in order to focus the laser beam. In addition, the use of a prism is provided in this publication.
  • The latest laser trackers are highly precise measuring instruments that use a combination of angle and distance measurement to record the 3D point coordinates of an object. The distance is measured using a laser interferometer or absolute distance measurement or a combination of both.