Should I destroy the whole Roman salad?
Romaine lettuce to sugar loaf | Salad & leafy vegetables
In this edition of our overview of lettuce varieties and leafy vegetables: romaine lettuce, rocket salad, sorrel, black salsify, soy, spinach, chicory and sugar loaf.
Characteristics: romaine lettuce is also called cooked salad, romaine lettuce, binding salad or summer endive and belongs to the daisy family. Salad is said to have been a popular vegetable in Egypt as early as 4,000 years ago. It originally comes from Central Europe and West Asia. The lettuce variety has spatulate leaves. These are robust and heavily ribbed. The inner leaves are light green with yellowish colored leaf veins that taste like asparagus.
Use: On the one hand, romaine lettuce is eaten raw, on the other hand, like spinach, it can also be prepared as a vegetable side dish. The American Caesar Salad is made from romaine lettuce. The salad will keep fresh in the refrigerator for 2-3 days. He has 11 kcal per 100 grams.
Healing powers: The bitter substance lactucin it contains has a calming effect that was already known in ancient Rome.
Characteristics: Rocket or rocket originally comes from the Mediterranean region and belongs to the cruciferous family. Three types of lettuce are grouped under the name Rucola: the garden mustard, the variety typically available as rocket, the narrow-leaved double seed and the wall double seed.
Oil can also be extracted from the garden mustard. The elongated leaves of the rocket are about 10 to 15 centimeters long and serrated similar to the leaves of the dandelion. Rocket is particularly popular in Italy, but the annual plant is also becoming increasingly popular here.
Use: Rocket should only be used raw, as it loses its own taste when cooked. If heated, this should only be done for a few minutes. This significantly reduces the sharpness. In addition to preparing it as a salad, it can also make one Risotto added or prepared like a pesto. In Italy it is also often used as a topping for pizza. Unwashed in a plastic bag, rocket can be kept in the refrigerator for about 2 days.
Healing powers: Rucola is rich in vitamin C and has a positive effect on the immune system. The mustard oils contained have an antibacterial effect. It is also said to have an appetizing, digestive and diuretic effect.
Characteristics: Sorrel is a wild vegetable that was used in ancient times by the Egyptians, Greeks and Romans to compensate for the excessive consumption of fatty foods. It is a fairly perennial herb and reaches a stature height of 30 to 100 centimeters with up to ten centimeters long, arrow-shaped leaves that shine dark green and have two characteristic tips at the lower end.
The leaves, which can be easily snipped off by hand, are interesting for the kitchen. Specimens with brown spots are left standing because they are attacked by a rust fungus that is poisonous to humans. Sorrel blooms from May to August and is now a popular garden plant.
Use: Sorrel has a sour, tart and slightly hot taste. You can prepare sorrel like spinach or mix it with it to create a slightly more tangy taste.
It is also used as a salad or as a creamy soup. Finely chopped and briefly boiled in salted water and then steamed in butter, sorrel is a very tasty vegetable. These vegetables taste particularly good with fish, eggs, omelets, as well as veal and pork. Important: Sorrel must not be boiled in an iron pot, the herb will then have an unpleasant metallic taste.
Healing powers: Sorrel is very popular due to its high vitamin C content. Raw it contains almost as much vitamin C as the lemon. However, it also contains oxalic acid, which is harmful to human health in large quantities, especially for those with kidney disease (as the calcium salt, it clogs the fine kidney tubules).
For indigestion, iron deficiency and loss of appetite, sorrel can be used in moderation as a remedy. In homeopathy, the fresh leaves or roots are used to produce an essence that is prescribed for skin diseases. An old home remedy is to put the fresh leaves on the diseased skin.
It also relieves itching after insect bites and has a blood-purifying and blood-forming effect. Sorrel root, boiled down with sugar, is used as a light laxative for constipation. In addition, the pressed juice is said to have a healing effect on external ulcers and cancerous internal ulcers.
Characteristics: The best known species of salsify is the garden salsify, which, like its relatives, also belongs to the daisy family. The root becomes 30 to 40 cm long, reaches a diameter of 2 to 3 cm and is slightly tapered to a point. The root skin gets its color from an almost black cork layer, which also inhibits evaporation. The elongated roots are eaten as a vegetable in the winter months and give the salsify, among other things, the name "winter asparagus".
Use: The roots are washed. Then, using gloves (the whitish-yellow, rubber-containing milk juice turns the skin brown when processed), peeled it with a fine potato or asparagus peeler and immediately put it in water so that it does not tarnish.
It is easier to wash the whole roots well and to add them to the boiling water without peeling them. Cook for 15 to 20 minutes, cool a little, only then peel and place in lemon water. The skin can also be peeled off slightly pre-cooked. The salsify can then be used as a soup, cooked vegetable garnish or as a salad.
Healing powers: The salsify is low in calories, but rich in healing powers: It is considered an anti-stress vegetable because it has a relaxing effect and brings good sleep, as well as Brain food, because its high iron and phosphorus content has a supportive effect on brain activity, promotes concentration and can reduce forgetfulness.
The high vitamin E content is exceptional; it also contains vitamins B1 - B3 as well as iron, potassium, calcium, copper and magnesium. Gout sufferers should eat the vegetables as they help excrete uric acid. In addition, the salsify helps through the trace elements it contains, osteoporosis to prevent.
Features: The Soybean is an oil and protein plant from Manchuria. It came to the World Exhibition in Vienna in 1873 and was used for plant breeding for the first time in Europe by G. Haberlandt.
Their main value lies in their high protein (around 39%) and oil (around 17%) content, the latter being unusual for beans. For a large part of the world production, the oil is extracted first, the remaining mass (soy extraction meal or soy cake) is used as animal feed, but also as a meat substitute in vegetarian cuisine. In recent years, soy has been on everyone's lips less because of its taste, but mainly in connection with genetic engineering.
Use: A wide variety of products are obtained from soybeans, which can be used in a wide variety of ways: Tofu (as a meat substitute), soy sauce (condiment), soy milk (lactose-free milk substitute), soy oil (cholesterol-free, low in calories, rich in minerals), etc. Soy is also a important food substitute for:
- Milk protein allergy sufferers, as soy is lactose-free
- People with high levels of fat in the blood, as soy does not contain cholesterol
- People with a glutamate allergy, as soy is gluten-free
Disadvantage: soy tastes absolutely neutral by nature, so it is not necessarily a delight for the palate.
Healing powers: With its concentrated protein, the soybean is an ideal source of energy and brings a breath of fresh air into our body cells. Your vegetable proteins are an important building block of our diet. But it's not just the proteins that make soybeans so valuable for our body, soy is also an oil plant and contains high quality, polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega-3).
Folic acid belongs to the family of B vitamins and has a number of positive effects with the so-called "anti-aging effect": it can Alzheimer and Strokes prevent.
Characteristics: Spinach is also called real spinach or green spinach and belongs to the foxtail family. Spinach originally comes from Central Asia and is now grown worldwide. A distinction is made between summer spinach, which, as the name suggests, is grown in the summer months, and winter spinach - here it is sown in the winter months. Summer spinach is more tender and has shorter leaves and stems. Spinach is a fleshy vegetable that has long, triangular leaves that are light to dark green. It tastes slightly like iron.
Use: Spinach is often prepared raw as a salad, when cooked it is used as a vegetable side dish, for stews or casseroles. Spinach should be washed thoroughly before preparation. Raw spinach shouldn't have any spots or yellow spots, and the leaves and stems should look fresh and crisp. Fresh spinach will keep in the refrigerator for a maximum of 2 days. However, if it is stored for a long time, it quickly loses its vitamin content. 100 grams of spinach only has 15 calories.
Healing powers: Spinach does not contain as much iron as was originally assumed (due to a comma error), but it prevents cell destruction and thus has a positive influence on aging processes, inhibits the development of cancer and prevents cardiovascular diseases. The folic acid it contains is particularly important for the child's development during pregnancy. Spinach also strengthens eyesight thanks to its vitamin A content.
Characteristics: Chicories or chicory are a genus of the sunflower family. The most well-known representative and also native to Europe is the so-called common chicory with several well-known unetrades (salad chicory, chichorée, radicchio).
Use: see Chichorée.
Healing powers: see Chichorée.
Characteristics: Sugar loaf is a form of chicory.
Use: In the past, sugar loaf was a typical lager vegetable that made "fresh" salads in winter. The heads can be cut across like Chinese cabbage, creating thin strips. Like chicory, it is also suitable for gratinating and cooking. The sugar loaf tastes a bit bitter; by soaking it in lukewarm water, part of its bitter taste can be removed; however, valuable ingredients are also lost in the process.
Healing powers: Nutritionally, the sugar loaf is with Endive and Chichorée comparable.
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Photo reference: unless otherwise stated, photo credit by Fotolia.com (or Adobe Stock)
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