What is the hybridization of NO


In chemistry, it's about the Hybridization about the merging and mixing of orbitals. In this post we explain how and when the hybridization occurs. We'll also look at different forms of this.

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Hybridization explained simply

In nature, bonds between atoms often occur differently from what is theoretically expected. For example, carbon C only has 2 valence electrons, but can still have 4 equivalent bonds with 4 hydrogen atoms H to methane CH4 enter. This is possible through the so-called Hybridization. Different orbitals merge with each other and result in so-called Hybrid orbitals. As a result, the electrons in the bond can be spatially better distributed and the energetic state of the whole Molecule sinks. So it becomes more stable.

Definition: hybridization

Hybridization is about the merging of different orbitals in an atom in order to be able to bond better with another atom. The hybrid orbitals then enable the molecule to adopt an energetically more favorable state.

Orbital model hybridization

The hybridization builds on the theory of Orbital model theory on. According to the theory, electrons move in three-dimensional spaces around the atomic nucleus. In this context you got to know the s-, p- and d- orbital with their spatial form in our article. These orbitals can then merge with one another in the case of different molecules or else hybridize. The outer shape of the orbitals then changes and the so-called hybrid orbitals arise.

Hybridization chemistry

The following is the Covalent bond considered closer. In general, this type of bond always occurs in chemistry where two orbitals overlap and electrons can thus be shared. The covalent bond can according to their symmetry can be further subdivided into sigma and pi bonds.

Sigma bond

At a sigma bond the charge distribution of the electrons in the connection is rotationally symmetrical to the bond axis. In order for this type of bond to take place, the two electron clouds of the bond partners must overlap more than with the pi bond. As a result, the sigma bond is energetically more stable. The sigma bond occurs when two s or two p or one s and one p orbital bind with one another.

Pi bond

The pi bond comes about through an overlap of d and p orbitals. It is not rotationally symmetrical. The charge is distributed here below and above the nodes of the orbitals. The bond is also referred to as delocalized because one does not know exactly where the binding is Electron pair just staying.

sp hybridization

Ethine C.2H2 is a molecule that is hybridized to sp. It has a linear structure, which means the angle between the orbitals is 180 °. In addition, the molecule has one between the two carbon atoms Triple bond. This triple bond consists of one sigma and two pi bonds.

As the name in the title suggests, only one s and one p orbital merge here. More precisely, the 2s and 2p orbital hybridize into a club-shaped one Hybrid orbital. The remaining electrons remain in their basic state in their residence spaces.

sp2 hybridization

At Ethene C.2H4 lies a sp2 Hybridization before. That means it hybridizes an s-orbital and two p-orbitals. There are then three energetically equivalent sp2 Hybrid orbitals. A p orbital remains in the ground state. This creates a double bond between the two carbon atoms and a single bond to the respective hydrogen atoms. The angle between the orbitals here is 120 ° and reflects the energetically most favorable spatial arrangement of the electrons.

sp3 hybridization

The sp3 Hybridization can do well with the whey methane CH4 be clarified. Carbon C has two outer electrons and should normally only bond with 2 H atoms. But there are four equivalent bonds in methane. They are indistinguishable from one another. This is due to the sp3 Hybridization occurs. A spherical s- and three dumbbell-shaped p-orbitals of carbon fuse together to form 4 club-shaped sp3Hybrid orbitals. These orbitals are energetically a little lower than the p and higher than the original s orbital. Because of this, everyone has Hybrid orbital one electron and can bond with one hydrogen atom at a time. This reduces the total energy of the entire molecule. Methane thus takes the external form of a Tetrahedron at. This reflects an angle of 109.5 ° between the orbitals.

In a molecular orbital model, the sp3 Hybridization of carbon look like this. First there are two fully occupied s orbitals and the p orbital partially occupied by electrons. If the hybridization now takes place, four sp3 Hybrid orbitals with each an electron