How gifted was Albert Einstein

childhood and education:
Albert Einstein was born on March 14, 1879 as the older of two children of the devout Jewish businessman Hermann Einstein and his wife Pauline in Ulm. In the year after his birth, the Einstein family moved to Munich because of the business interests of their father and uncle. There, Hermann Einstein, in collaboration with his brother, built up an extremely successful family company that was to supply numerous power plants in the Munich area with electrical equipment in the years that followed.
Albert Einstein first attended primary school in Munich and later the Luitpold-Gymnasium, which has been called Albert-Einstein-Gymnasium since 1965. During this time, the boy did well in the natural sciences, but there were no signs of extraordinary talent. The parents moved to Milan with the younger sister in 1894. Albert Einstein initially stayed in Munich to finish his school education. However, since he came into conflict with the teachers and the strict educational system, he decided at the age of sixteen to drop out of school prematurely and also to move to Italy to avoid military service in Germany. For the next few months he stayed in Lombardy and worked for his father's company. He had the wish that Albert Einstein would start studying electrical engineering so that one day he could take over the family business. Albert Einstein applied against the will of his father at the ETH Zurich with the plan to study physics there, but was rejected because he did not have a school leaving certificate. In the course of his university entrance examination, he showed excellent grades in the natural sciences, but failed due to his poor knowledge of French. Thereupon he made up the Swiss Matura at the canton school in Aarau, which he passed with distinction in October 1896. In the same semester, he began studying at the ETH Zurich, which he completed four years later as a qualified teacher in mathematics and physics.

Professional career and academic achievements:
Immediately after his studies he tried his hand at first in Schaffhausen and later in Winterthur as a substitute teacher, but he soon gave up this activity due to a lack of interest. In 1902 he got a job at the Federal Office for Intellectual Property, the patent office in Bern, where he was able to work as a technical examiner. A year earlier, after five years of statelessness, he had applied for and obtained Swiss citizenship.
Albert Einstein already dealt with scientific questions during his activity as a technical examiner at the patent office, which led to his first important publication in 1905, namely a contribution on the photo effect. In it, Einstein explained the photoemission, in the course of which particles are detached from atomic compounds, based on the action of light or X-rays on the surface of a body. In September of the same year two more papers appeared, which already contained the basics of his relativity theory and the famous formula E = mc². For a long time Einstein had dealt with Isaac Newton's laws and the observations of the physicist Albert Michelson and found that the measured speed of light always remained constant, from which he concluded that time and space were not absolute dimensions as previously assumed. This led to the development of the formula known to every physics student today, with which he abolished the distinction between energy and matter. The formula says that the energy of a particle in its resting position is determined by its mass.

Albert Einstein received his doctorate in 1905 and completed his habilitation three years later at the University of Bern. This led to the fact that he gave up his work at the patent office and tried to pursue a scientific career. He spent the next few years at the University of Zurich as an associate professor for theoretical physics, later he went to Prague and finally to Berlin. First he was made a member of the Academy of Sciences there, and in 1917 he was also appointed head of the Kaiser Wilhelms Institute for Physics. During his time in Berlin he began to deal with political questions about Judaism and gradually developed into a Zionist.
With the development of his general theory of relativity, he continued his work from 1905, in the course of which he had already established that the same physical laws always apply in time and space. The theory of relativity says that the perception of the same physical processes is relative, that is, it can turn out differently depending on the point of view. In doing so, Einstein revolutionized modern physics and the generally applicable worldview of his time. Albert Einstein had been in discussion for many years as a possible Nobel Prize winner for the development of the theory of relativity, but the award was repeatedly prevented by a member of the committee due to doubts about his work. In 1922 Albert Einstein received the prestigious award retrospectively for the previous year, however not for his general theory of relativity, but for his work on photoelectric effects through deflection in the gravitational field of the sun, which made him world famous overnight in 1919.

Albert Einstein and his family left Germany as early as 1932 due to political developments. After that, the physicist never set foot on German soil again. He settled in Princeton, where he researched the development of a field theory at the Institute for Advanced Studies, largely unsuccessfully. Fearing a nuclear build-up in the Third Reich, he wrote to President Roosevelt in the first year of the war, pointing out the possibility of using nuclear energy to produce a highly destructive atomic bomb. In 1952, after Chaim Weizmann's death, the presidency of Israel was proposed to him, but Albert Einstein rejected it. On April 18, 1955, at Princeton, he died of internal bleeding caused by an aneurysm.

Private:
His first permanent job in Bern at the patent office was linked to a regular income, which enabled him to marry his fellow student and partner Mileva Maric in January 1903, although both families were strictly against the marriage. At that time he already had a one-year-old daughter named Lieserl, Mileva Maric, who either died or was given up for adoption. The marriage resulted in two sons, Hans Albert and Eduard, who were born in 1904 and 1910. In 1919 Mileva Maric divorced, and Albert Einstein married Elsa Löwenthal, his cousin, whom he had met in Berlin. Her death in 1936 led to the scientist's gradual isolation.

Within a few years, the unknown teacher and examiner at the patent office advanced to a visionary physicist who had a lasting impact on modern natural sciences. When he presented his groundbreaking scientific achievements to the public in 1905, an "annus mirabilis" that was true thanks to him for physics, he changed a worldview that had been valid for two hundred years. Many scientists compare the effect of the theory of relativity on society and science today with that of the Copernican Revolution, which in the early 16th century also forever changed the general worldview.