When will the yuan be fully convertible?

Freely convertible currencies

Currency restrictions

Some countries completely prohibit the exchange of their currencies beyond a certain amount (e.g. the Cuban peso and the North Korean won). In this case, the black market is the only place where these currencies can be exchanged outside of these restrictions.


Partial restrictions

The Indian rupee is a partially convertible currency. India has restricted trade in rupees. This usually results in poor exchange rates when transferring money to and from India. In our experience, these (mostly hidden) fees can be up to 10% at € 2000. How do these restrictions apply in real life? For example, anyone willing to buy goods or assets outside the country over a certain amount, or anyone planning to invest more than a pre-determined amount of money in India, needs state permission to do so. The status also means that the currency is not subject to the market-controlled exchange rate and its value is subject to regulatory intervention to prevent it from becoming unstable. Some countries decide to relax their restrictions on certain types of transfers, such as wire transfers. On the one hand, joining the freely convertible currency club would mean that the Indian rupee is a mature currency that can operate in the free market. It would also improve financial flow, open new investment opportunities, attract businesses and partners, and give India access to preferential loans with lower interest rates. Indian citizens can easily invest and work abroad.


Non-deliverable futures and non-convertible currencies

A non-deliverable futures contract (NDF) on non-convertible currencies can be used to try to reduce the volatility risk of the currency. It enables partners to decide on profits or losses for future contracts before a contract can expire. Such invoices are made up to 2 days before such contracts expire. The NDF enables those who use non-convertible currencies to enter the international market. In the meantime, non-convertible currencies cannot be traded on the foreign exchange market. Countries that issue such currencies would block the flow of money to prevent further destabilization of the markets. During these times, these currencies can only be bought on the black markets. This in turn affects the business and international partnerships, making them risky, illegal and difficult.